Xxx gratis escorte dieppe

xxx gratis escorte dieppe

The Huron and Algonquin Savages can expect some help from our Fathers and, through their mediation, from the French ; but the Abnaquiois can claim from us only their instruction, pure and simple. Ils n'atten- dent aucune grace des Anglois, par la faueur des Iefuites: Si bien [1 1 1] qu'ils n'ont point d'efperance, ny pour le parti- culier, ny pour le public, de tirer aucune vtilit6 temporelle de la venue de nos Peres en leur pays.

C'eft luy feul qui leur fait receuoir auec ardeur les enfeigne- mens qu'on leur donne: Or iugez maintenant, dit le Pere, fi on peut aban- donner ces peuples, a moins que d'abandonner Iefus- Chrift, qui prie fortement en leurs perfonnes, qu'on le tire du danger d'vn precipice eternel. Peut-on ] RELATION OF 41 their midst a Father and his companion in need of all things, having for house only their bark cabins, for bed only the earth, for food only their own salma- gundis.

They look for no favor from the English through the Jesuits' mediation. They have no thought of coming to Kebec to trade, for they were notified in the year that one or two Canoes were enough for coming every year to renew the alliances which they have with the new Christians of saint Joseph. Consequently [in] they have no hope, either as individuals or as a people, of reaping any temporal advantage from the coming of our Fathers to their country.

It is God alone who has given them the grace and strength to persevere so long in acts of piety, without master, without teacher, and without guide. It is he alone who makes them receive with ardor the teachings that are given them. It is he alone who plants deep in their hearts the esteem and affection which they have for their Father. It is he alone who makes them offer such strong and unceasing resistance to the Demons of whom I have just spoken, and who in truth ap- peared unconquerable in a country where there are no laws directed against Sorcerers, or against drunk- enness, or against polygamy, or against enmities and mortal hatreds.

God is their sole and only law. Can one leave as prey to the Demons so many persons, and so many nations, each composed of ten or twelve thousand souls, without [] having compassion on them? Les quitter, c'eft quitter Iefus-Chrift: Vt quid dereliquifti me?

Ut quid dereliquisti me? People fight very often for reeds, and despise laurels and palms. VNE lettre enuoyee des Trois Riuieres, nous four- nira vn Iournal, de ce qu'ont fait cette annee les Hiroquois en ce nouueau monde. Les voyes de Dieu ne font pas moins iuftes, pour eftre cachees. II abbaifle fouuent ceux qu'il veut exalter. II enuoie vn homme chercher des Aneffes pour luy faire trouuer vn Royaume. II exerce vn berger a tourner vne fronde, pour luy donner la vidtoire d'vn Geant, les Hiroquois ont quali iufques a prefent, fait plus de bien en la Nouuelle [] France, qu'ils n'y ont fait de mal.

God's ways are none the less just for being hidden. He often humbles those whom he intends to exalt. He sends a man in search of She-asses, in order to make him find a Kingdom. He trains a shepherd in the use of a sling, to give him the victory over a Giant. Up to the present time, the Hiroquois have done almost more good than harm in New [] France.

They have delivered many souls from the fires of Hell, while burning their bodies in an elemental fire. For it is true that they have converted many per- sons, and that they are the instruments which God has used for deriving the sweet from the bitter, life from death, glory from ignominy, an eternity of pleasure from a moment of suffering, — severe indeed, but recompensed a hundredfold. When the Hurons were in affluence, and the Algonquins in prosperity, they mocked at the Gospel, and tried to murder those who proclaimed it in their country, — accusing them of being sorcerers, who made them lose their lives by secret means, spoiled their grain, and caused drouths and inclement weather; and regarding them as traitors, who held communication with their enemies for the purpose of selling their country.

Difons done que les Hiroquois ont rendu des hommes riches penfans les rendre pauures: Mais il faut que ie confeffe, que s'ils ont fait du bien par cy-deuant, qu'ils paroiflent main- tenant a nos yeux comme des monftres, qui font prefts de nous engloutir. As soon as the Hiroquois who, before the good news of the Gospel was carried to them, were, as a general rule, subdued by our Savages [] had cast them into the abyss where they still are, these poor people came to throw themselves into our arms, — asking shelter and protection from those whom they had regarded as traitors; seeking the friendship of those whom they had tried to murder as Sorcerers ; urging that the life of the soul might be granted them, since they were losing that of the body; and desiring entrance into Heaven, since they were being driven out from their own lands.

And, it seems to me, I can say, with a very great appear ance of truth, that the Algonquins, and the Hurons, and numerous other Nations whom we have in- structed, would have been lost if they had not been ruined; that the greater part of those who came in quest of baptism in affliction, would never have found it in prosperity ; and that those who have found Paradise in the Hell of their torments, would have found the true Hell in their earthly Paradise.

Let us say, then, that the Hiroquois have rendered men rich, thinking to make them poor; that they have made saints, thinking to make victims of wretched- ness; in a word, that we owe to them without, how- ever, being under any obligation to them the conversion and sanctification [] of many souls.

But I must confess that if they have done good, as indicated above, they appear now in our eyes like monsters ready to devour us. Mais que la porte du falut foit fermee aux nations plus peuplees qui habitent les riues de la mer douce des Hurons? C'eft ce qu'on appelle vn grand malheur, auquel neantmoins les hautes puifsaces peuuet aif6- met remedier, nonobftant les defordres de la France, caufez par des Hiroquois auffi barbares que ceux de l'Amerique: The gain is greater than the loss in this traffic.

But that the door of salvation should be closed to the more populous nations dwelling on the shores of the fresh-water sea of the Hurons ; that the new Churches of Jesus Christ, founded and established by the piety of France, should be ruined, and so many new Chris- tians delivered to the jaws of these Lions; that the Gospel laborers and the Pastors of this fold should be banished and driven away from their flocks, — that is what may be called a great misfortune, which, however, the high mightinesses 3 can easily remedy, notwithstanding the disorders of France, caused by Hiroquois as barbarous as those of America.

But that is straying too far from my goal ; let us begin our narrative. They were in ambush at the river of la Magdelaine, six leagues, or thereabout, above three Rivers. That Squad, commanded by a man named Toratati, fell into their hands and was entire- ly defeated. On the 10th of May, Father Jacques Buteux as related in the first Chapter of this Relation was put to death, with a Frenchman accompanying him, named Fontarabie. Pierre, ou ils alloient dreffer leur embufche, les tailla en piece pour la plufpart.

C'eft ainfi que les Hiro- quois groffiffent leurs troupes. A young man who had killed one of the Hiroquois who surprised them, was burnt and tormented in a horrible manner, on the same spot. On the 1 6th of the same month, the Algonquins of three Rivers, having learned of the defeat of their people, went out to lie in wait for the [] Hiroquois as they passed ; but they fell into the trap which they intended to set for their enemies, for another band of Hiroquois — concealed near Lake St.

Pierre, where they were going to lay their ambuscade — cut them -into pieces, for the most part. On the same day, there arrived from Montreal a Huron soldier of Toratati's company, who had escaped from the hands of the Hiroquois. He reported that this Captain had been burnt, and that those of his band that were left had been given their lives.

It is thus that the Hiroquois swell their troops. On the 15th of the same month, a Huron woman, who was working at Montreal cultivating Indian corn, was carried off by the Hiroquois, with two of her children. These wretches hide in the woods, behind tree-trunks or in holes which they make in the ground, where they pass two and three days sometimes, without eating, in order to lie in wait and surprise their prey.

On the 2 1 st, a French soldier and a Savage — cross- ing the great River, in a Canoe, before the Fort of three Rivers — were attacked, and both wounded, the Savage dying of his wounds two days afterward. Les Hiroquois montent das leurs Canots, ils font feu de tous coftez, pourfuiuans cette cha- loupe; qui mettant la voile au vent, fe tira de ce danger. Eftant abordee proche du Fort des Fran- cois, quelques foldats f 'embarquent, les Sauuages les fuiuent dans leurs Canots, ils donnent la chaffe aux Hiroquois, les preffent de fort pres: These wanton Rascals abound every- where, and at all times.

On the 8th of June, two Hurons who were stretch- ing a line to catch some fish, near the Islands of the river called three Rivers, were butchered. As this place is very near the French settlements, some men hastened hither, on hearing the noise, and pursued the Hiroquois, who made their escape, leaving behind their equipage, and the scalps of the two men whom they had killed. On the 19th of the same month, three Canoes arrived by the river of three Rivers, bringing word that the Hiroquois had made their way very far into the country of the Attikamegues, and had defeated them for the third time.

On the 2nd of July, at five o'clock in the morning, when some Hurons were going out to fish opposite the Fort of the French, on the other side of the great river, which is of considerable width at this place, the Hiroquois, who were in ambush, rushed upon them; but they [] jumped into the shallop of the French who had come to escort them.

The Hiroquois took to their Canoes and opened fire in all directions, pursuing the shallop, which spread its sail to the wind and extricated itself from this danger. Having reached land, near the French Fort, some soldiers entered it; the Savages followed them in their Canoes, and they gave chase to the Hiro- quois, pressing them very hard. But as they are adroit, they halted, protecting themselves from our firearms; and seeing that the Lion's skin could not cover them, they tried to use that of the Fox.

Ils furent plus heureux que les autres: The Hiroquois said they were led by a man named Aontarisati, their Captain, and that he wished to speak to the French, and to the Savages who were their allies.

They were told, in answer, to go down opposite the French Fort, and there they should receive an interview. They [] repaired thither immediately, and from that place sent two Canoes to the quarters of the French. One carried a young Huron whom they had captured, whom they put ashore at a spot a little above the Fort, to go and see his kinsfolk who were among the French; this was in order that he might incite them to desert the French side.

The other Canoe did not approach the land, but called out from its position on the water, and asked that the three Captains — of the French, of the Algonquins, and of the Hurons —should cross the river in order to go and treat with their people ; and they said that they would, on their side, send the three most prominent men of their number.

This proposal was ridiculed; and, meanwhile, some Canoes approaching for the purpose of corrupting our Hurons and bringing them over to their side, one of them was captured, which carried three Hiroquois ; two of these were Captains, who were noto- rious on account of the murders they had committed in all the French settlements.

They were more fortunate than the rest, for our Fathers instructed and baptized them before their death. They had two encounters, and fought stoutly and resolutely, without our learning the degree of success on the side of the Hiroquois; as for our own people, they returned on the seventh of August, hav- ing lost two men, and bringing back many wounded.

On the 1 8th of August, four inhabitants of three Rivers, on going down a short distance below the settlement of the French, were pursued by the Hiro- quois, who killed two of them, as it was reported, and carried off the other two, to sacrifice them to their wrath.

On the 19th, the repulse was much greater. Mon- sieur du Plessis Kerbodot, Governor of three Rivers, taking with him forty or fifty Frenchmen and ten or twelve Savages, had them embark in shallops to give chase to the enemy, to recover, if possible, the pris- oners and the cattle belonging to the French, which, it was believed, had been carried away.

After sail- ing to a distance of about two leagues above the Fort, he perceived the enemy in the undergrowth at the edge of the woods, and landed in a place that was full of mud and very disadvantageous. Some one pointed out to him the advantage [] of the enemy, who had the forest for shelter. He went for- ward, advancing headlong ; but his ardor made him lose his life, as well as those of fifteen Frenchmen. During this engagement some Hiroquois, detached from their main body, slew a poor Huron and his wife who were at work in their own field, not far from the French settlements.

Ie n ay encore perdu quvn Ongle. Vne Dame honoree pour fa vertu, a efcrit a quelque perfonne en France, qui auoit connoiflance du fieur de Normanville, qu'il fembloit auoir eu quelque prefentiment de fa prife. II eft probable difoit-il a cette Dame vn peu deuant que de tomber entre les mains de ces Bar- bares qu'eflant tous les iours dans les occafions, ie pourray eflre pris des Hiroquois: But they re- tired, not knowing how to make use of their victory, and suffered the French to finish their harvests and garner their crops in peace, but not without sorrow.

On the 23rd of the same month of August, a visit was made to the scene of the engagement, where these words were found written on a Hiroquois buckler: Germain, Onneiochronnons and Agneehronons. I have as yet lost only a Finger-nail.

Normanville, a young [] man of skill and bravery who understood the Algonquin and Hiroquois lan- guages, had written these words with a piece of charcoal, wishing to convey the information that the seven persons whose names were seen, had been taken by the Hiroquois known as the Onneiochronnons and Agneehronnons, and that he had himself up to that time received no further injury than the tearing out of a finger-nail.

I greatly fear that these poor victims have been sacrificed to the rage and fury of those Barbarians. A Lady, honored for her virtue, has written to some one in France, who was acquainted with the sieur de Normanville, that he seemed to have had some presentiment of his capture. Vne lettre dattee du premier de Nouembre, parle en ces termes.

Noel Tekoiierimat fen va promptement armer la ieuneffe, qui eft icy en aflez bon nombre, pour obuier a ce malheur: Voila ce que porte cette lettre. A letter, dated the first of November, conveys the following information: They add that, when spending the night near the burnt Rock, they heard the Hiroquois singing as they are wont to sing when they torture their prisoners. A good many of our Neophytes have gone out hunting in that direction, and I greatly fear lest they may fall into the snares of those hunters of men.

Noel Tekouerimat is setting out immediately to arm the young men, who are here in considerable num- bers, in order to avert such a disaster ; but he would very much like to have Monsieur our Governor give him a French escort. To crown all our calamities, we are informed that the Hiroquois intend to rally together all their forces, in order to [] come and destroy us next Winter.

Such is the report made by the fugitives, and the reason which they give is very probable. Le Demon fcait bien prendre fon temps. But the Sontoua- heronnons made answer that they had upon their hands enemies near home ; and, if they would come and help destroy these, they themselves would join them later on for the purpose of destroying the French. The Agneehronnon Hiroquois accepted the condition and sent their troops to join those of the Sontouaheronnons, — who, with this assistance, have destroyed the Neutral nation, which was on their borders.

Consequently, they are obliged to join forces with the Hiroquois called Agneehronnons, for the purpose of coming to make war on the French. Those are the contents of the memoirs which have served as material for writing this Chapter. The Demon well knows how to seize his oppor- tunity. Seeing that old France is rent asunder by her own children, he wishes to destroy the new, in order to reestablish his Dominion [] and his King- dom, which is steadily going to ruin, owing to the conversion of these poor north Americans, of whom some Thousands have already entered into Heaven by the door of faith, of Baptism, and of a holy life.

Those who remain, forming a Church of great inno- cence, cry out: Let not the Hiroquois stifle to death the germ of your belief, and the seed of the faith, and the plant of the Gospel, which we have received through your agency.

If ye love Jesus Christ, protect those who love him and are baptized in his name. Ie ne mens point, il me femble que c'eft auiourdhuy que tu m'as baptiz6, ie vieilly, mais la foy ne vieillit point en moy.

I'ayme autant la priere au bout de quinze ans, que le premier iour, que tu m'as inftruit. Voire mefme ie ne change quafi [] plus de lieu, ie pafferay l'Hyuer prochain a Ka-Miskoua- ouangachit, que vous nomez S. Iofeph, comme j'y ay pafle le precedent. Ie fuis quafi tout Francois. France, who is constantly emptying herself into foreign countries, [] does not lack men to build up Colonies.

God grant that she may have charity enough to send them to a place where they will live holier and easier lives, and where they would be the defense and aid of Jesus Christ, who honors men so highly that he chooses to save them by the help of men. Let us finish this Chapter with a letter that a Savage Captain, a good Christian, sent to Father Paul le Jeune, who is laboring in old France for the salva- tion of the new.

I seem to see thee, when thy letter is read to me ; and I seem to be with thee, when I speak to thee by the mouth, or the pen, of Father de Quen. I do not lie; it seems to me only yesterday that thou didst baptize me.

I am grow- ing old, but the faith is not growing old in me. I love prayer as much, at the end of fifteen years, as on the first day when thou didst instruct me.

We are Changing in all things, we people of this coun- try ; but I assure thee that I never shall change in regard to what thou didst teach me, and what we are now taught by him who governs us in thy place. Indeed, I make hardly any further change, [] even in my location ; I shall pass the coming Win- ter at Ka-Miskouaouangachit, which you call St. Joseph, as I passed the last one. I am almost wholly French. I'eufle volontiers veu la robe que tu m'enuoyes; on dit qu'il y a de Tor deffus.

Nous ferons bien toft des ames de tref- paffez: Dis-luy qu'il donne fecours a ceux qui font baptifez. C'eft la fin de mon difcours. That was not because it is beautiful, but because they like, and are glad to see, what comes from us. I would have been pleased to see the robe that thou art going to send me ; it is said that there is gold upon it. Didst thou not have this thought: Make haste to come, and to bring us many sword-bearers, in order to drive away the Hiroquois from our heads.

We shall soon be departed souls ; do not wait until we are in the grave before coming to see us. It is thy good friend, Noel Tekouerimat, who writes to thee, and who says that he will always pray to God for thee, and for those who give us aid.

Tell him to give aid to those who are baptized. That is all I have to say. Ces Memoires eftans tombez entre mes mains, j'ay creu que ce feroit faire tort au public de renfermer ce threfor dans les feules Maifons des Vrfulines. As these Memoirs have fallen into my hands, I thought it would be wronging the public to confine the enjoyment of this treasure exclusively to the Houses of the Ursulines.

Accordingly, I have extracted therefrom the greater part of the facts which I shall relate in this Chapter. Mother Marie de saint Joseph was born in Anjou, on the seventh of September, in the year 16 She was the daughter of Monsieur and Madame de la Troche, of saint Germain, persons of virtue, worth, and quality. Or ie dirois volontiers que c'eft la le plus grand peche qu'elle ait iamais commis contre la purete. That Royal Virgin and Mother of Virgins diffused in this little one's heart the love of purity and of Religion before she knew what purity and Religion were, unless it may be said — a thing which some persons remarked — that she was notably precocious in the use of her reason.

The valet de chambre, or footman, who brought her in his arms, gave her on the way some improper caresses; the poor child began to cry and to resist, in so strange a manner that this aston- ished man had much difficulty in framing a falsehood to conceal the cause of her tears.

Now I would willingly assert that this was the greatest sin against purity she ever committed. Though she gave me a very exact account, in new France, of all the acts of her life, I can say to render honor and glory to the source of all goodness that I do not remember hav- ing noted any fault that approached, even remotely, a serious offense. Speaking to me, then, afterward about that man's caresses, which were over in a mo- ment, she still wept hot tears, — not that she believed she had committed any fault in the matter, but from a holy jealousy for purity, lamenting with sorrow that, after having been so expressly dedicated and attached to the blessed Virgin, [] she should have had that unfortunate experience, to the detriment of her purity.

Arriua certain iour qu'vn homme de condition la voulant agacer, la baifa par furprife; elle, en fe retournant, luy donna vn foufflet fi ferre qu'il le fentit bien, quoy qu'il ne fuft porte - que de la main d'vn enfant. Bona arbor, bonos fruttus facit.

D'vn bon arbre il vient de bons fruidts. Monsieur her father, seeing that she was of an amiable disposition, took pleasure in opposing her in this inclination, — often telling her that he wished to marry her to a little Gentle- man of her own age; and often making her little presents, which he said were sent to her from him.

The poor child resisted and grieved so greatly, tak- ing this raillery for earnest, that Madame her mother, perceiving that she was beginning to waste away with melancholy, begged Monsieur her husband to forego this diversion.

It happened, one day, that a man of condition, wishing to tease her, kissed her by surprise; she turned around and gave him so smart a blow in the face that he felt it sharply, al- though it was delivered only by the hand of a child.

Her good mother, upon perceiving this, not only did not disapprove of her conduct, but even kissed and caressed her, and gave her full permission to bestow alms, and to visit the poor whom she fed, — taking the child with her, in order to give her pleasure, when she went to dispense her own charities.

Bona arbor bonos fructus facit, — " From a good tree come good fruits. Madame fa mere la conduifit elle-mefme a Tours, en l'aage de huidt. She envied the lot of a little shepherd- girl whom she saw somewhere, because she was freed from the trouble of wearing gloves, of adjusting a mask, of keeping little ornaments that were given to her, and of adapting herself to the fashion.

Her father and mother, seeing that she was delicate, and of so sweet a disposition, besides being so different in her ways from persons of her condition who are reared for the world, wished [] to induce in her a disposition to consecrate herself entirely to God, if he should deign to call her to his service. Madame her mother herself took her to Tours, at the age of eight or nine years, and gave her in charge of the good Ursuline Mothers, on whom Our Lord has conferred much grace for the rearing of youth in his fear and his love.

She gained an empire over them by her deference and courtesy, and by the little serv- ices she rendered them, — so that they regarded her as their little mistress, and were never jealous at see- ing her loved more than the others, and even to such a degree that the Nuns employed her to teach the others.

And although she was very merry-hearted, and liked her little amusements, it was always with- out detriment to her devotions. She applied herself with great pleasure to reading the lives of Saints, especially of those who had toiled in the conversion of souls ; hence it was that she loved and honored with peculiar fervor the Apostle of the Indies, St. Francis Xavier, making his life her innocent [] delight, — so that she often stole away from her companions, and deprived herself of her amusements, in order to find time to read it.

Ie ne fcay ii la delicateffe de fon naturel, ou la con- tention qu'elle apportoit pour acquerir la vertu, la firent tomber malade: Comme elle fe fentit entierement guerie, elle de- manda permiffion de retourner en fon petit Paradis: Elle l'obtint, mais non pas fans peine: She was not long with her parents before she recovered her former health. She did not discontinue her devotions, de- spite the distance separating her from the house and the guidance of the Ursuline Mothers.

She confessed and received communion with much frequency; she gave some time to silent prayer; she talked about God, and incited the servants to the practice of the virtues, with such well-grounded argument that Monsieur and Madame de la Troche were unable to conceive how a girl of her age could attain such heights, unless she were endowed with very ex- traordinary grace.

She obtained it, but not without difficulty; for the new [] in- tercourse and the new conversations that she had had with her parents had bound them so closely together on both sides that, when the question of parting came up, I do not know which suffered more, the parents or the child.

She has since said that the love they bore her, and the confidence which her good mother manifested in her, above her brothers and sisters, had exerted so sweet a charm over her that the violence she did to herself in leaving them came near making her fall down in a swoon from grief. A mefme temps qu'elle eft rendue a la maifon des Vrfulines, elle [] entre dans vn nouueau Combat. Elle prie, elle coniure les Meres de la receuoir en leur Nouitiat, pour eftre Religieufe.

La Mere de faindt Bernard qui 1'aymoit vniquement, iugea qu'il luy falloit donner ce con- tentement, auec obligation neanmoins de fortir ii Meffieurs fes parens la vouloient retirer: You would have said that the Spirit of God made her fly, and exult in her triumph, after that noble victory.

At the same time when she was restored to the house of the Ursulines, she [] entered on a new Struggle. She prayed, she conjured the Mothers to receive her into their Novitiate, that she might become a Nun.

She was told that she was not old enough, — that she was only thirteen or thereabout, and that fourteen was the required age. This repulse and her own fervor made her pine away ; she gave heed where the Su- perior and the Nuns were to pass, where she waited for them, and implored them on her knees to take pity on her. They answered her that she was out of health and they must rather speak about sending her back to her honored parents than about admitting her to the Novitiate.

The poor child sighed, and protested that the Novitiate would be her cure. Mother de saint Bernard, who loved her fondly, de- cided that it was necessary to grant her this satisfac- tion, with the condition, however, that she must leave if her parents wished to withdraw her.

She agreed to what was required from her, that she might enjoy what she herself was asking for ; and God gra- ciously caused her to find her health in this place of benediction. Voicy comme cette faueur luy fut accordee.

I'auoue qu'il eft bon que les parens fondent les volontes de leurs enfans: Let us see how that favor was granted her. MONSIEUR and Madame de la Troche, seeing that their daughter was entering upon her four- teenth year, and that she was pressing them urgently to permit her to enter the Religious life, repaired to Tours for the purpose of testing her thoroughly ; for, although they had offered her to God from the time she was in her cradle, in case he were pleased to ac- cept her for his house, yet, in spite of that, the love which they bore her made them resolve not to give her up, except for good cause, and until they were fully convinced of the genuineness of her call.

As soon as they arrived, they took her out of the Monas- tery and, keeping her with them, planted two bat- teries, capable of overthrowing any other calling less strong than hers. I admit that it is well for parents to sound their children's wishes, for one cannot rely upon every order of mind; but it must also [] be admitted that God does not always call so loudly, and make himself so clearly heard, that the child's attention cannot be diverted, and the child itself withdrawn from the place where Our Lord destined for it the grace of his salvation.

Toutes ces offres ne la touchoient point; mais 1' amour qu'elle fentoit pour vne mere fi aimable, luy dechiroit les entrailles, quand elle penfoit a la repa- ration. On la fit done rentrer au Conuent des Meres Vrfu- lines, ou le Demon qui preuoioit la faintete' de ce braue fujet, luy liura vne furieufe attaque.

II luy 6talle dans vn beau iour, toutes les raifons que Mon- lieur fon pere luy auoit apportees pour la diuertir de f on deflein: II efface de fa memoire toutes les repar- ties, que Dieu luy auoit fuggerez. Madame her mother kissed and caressed her, and offered her every endearment calculated to win the heart of a young Lady of her condition.

All these offerings failed to touch her ; but the love that she felt for so kind a mother rent her heartstrings when she thought of parting from her. But as she had a very high-spirited disposition, she stoutly resisted her natural tenderness; and then Our Lord put into her mouth such beautiful passages of Scripture, and thoughts from the holy fathers, touching the blessedness of the Religious life, and she quoted them [] with such fluency and eloquence, that her parents and several persons of quality who heard her were struck with surprise, and decided that no further resistance must be made to the spirit that makes eloquent the tongues of children.

Accordingly she was made to return to the Convent of the Ursuline Mothers, where the Evil One, fore- seeing the sanctity of this valiant subject, made a furious attack upon her. He displayed to her in a clear light all the reasons that her father had adduced to divert her from her purpose, effacing from her memory all the rejoinders with which God had in- spired her.

He aroused all the tenderness felt by her for -a mother who was never tired of seeing or of lov- ing her. The shock was so great and the darkness so thick that, feeling her strength wavering, she flung herself, as if she were a lost creature, into the arms of the blessed Virgin, offering all the devotions of which she could think, in order to win her heart and obtain, by her mediation, deliverance from this temptation.

Le iour qu'elle prit le faindt habit de la Religion, luy fut encore vn iour de combat. On a couftume d'habiller les filles en ce dernier iour de leur fiecle, conformement a l'eftat qu'elles auroient tenu dans le monde. On luy fit auffi porter le nom de faindt Bernard: Vous euffiez dit qu'elle commencoit par ou plufieurs acheuent.

I'e- ftois rauie d'eftonnement, dit la Mere de 1' Incarnation, de voir en vne fille de quatorze ans, non feulement la maturite de celles qui en ont plus de vingt- cinq, mais encore la vertu d'vne Religieufe defia bien auancee.

Rien de puerile ne paroiffoit en fa ieu- neffe, elle gardoit fes Regies dans vne fi grande ] RELATION OF 85 belong to God, and to follow the maxims of the Gos- pel, [] made her resolve, in the presence of the blessed Virgin, to drink the bitterness of her son's cup, and to persevere constantly in his house, even though all these torments should accompany her until death. It is the custom to dress the girls, on this last day of their secular life, in a manner befitting the rank that they would have held in the world.

Our Novice appeared, to the view of Madame her mother, so composed, so modest, that, when the latter approached her to give her the last Farewell, she seized and embraced her, and held her so long clasped to her bosom that Monsieur de la Troche, seeing her speechless and well- nigh in a swoon, snatched her from her mother's arms to conduct her to the door of the Monastery whence she had come.

This separation drew some tears from the daughter's eyes, and left the mother in a deep melancholy. As soon as the former entered the Monastery, her parade dress was removed, and the one that she had so ardently desired was given her, with the customary ceremonies.

She was also made to bear the name of saint Bernard ; we shall relate hereafter how [] she took that of saint Joseph. You would have said that she was beginning where many leave off. Nothing puerile showed itself in her youth: Les deux ans de fon Nouitiat fainctemet efcoulez, Meffieurs fes parens luy vindrent liurer la derniere bataille: Monlieur fon pere luy reprefente, qu'il n'y a encore rien de fait, qu'elle eft encore dans la plaine poffeffion de fa liberty, qu'il ne faut que trois paroles pour l'enchainer, en forte qu'il n'y aura plus de remede a fon repentir.

Leur deflein n' eftoit pas de refifter a Dieu: La liaifon des cceurs ne fe rompt bien fouuent qu'a- - 53] RELA TION OF ibsi 87 followed her Rules with so great exactness that one would have said she was born for these observances ; and the high sacrifice of the understanding and will, which causes so many persons great exertions, seemed to come to her by nature.

In a word, her disposi- tion, which was ever invariably cheerful, made her very lovable and very welcome to all the Communi- ty ; and she watched so carefully over herself that it was not necessary to admonish her twice in regard to the same thing; indeed, she even regarded herself as admonished and reprimanded for the faults that she saw corrected in her companions.

It suffices to render this very authentic and truthful testimony, that, from her entrance upon her Novitiate until her death, she always endeavored to respond faithfully to the grace of her calling.

Madame her mother brought to bear the rest of her rhetoric, and showed all her affection, all her love, and all her tenderness, — assur- ing her daughter that she would receive her with open arms, if the life of a Religious order that was far from easy was in the slightest degree distasteful to her; she protested that she could not, without violence, be separated from her.

Monsieur her father represented to her that no decisive step had yet been taken, that she was still in full possession of her liberty ; but that it needed only three words to bind her so that there would be no further remedy for her repentance. Their design was not to resist God, but to oppose a calling founded on shifting sand. Noftre Nouice ne pouuoit quitter Dieu, ny fes parens: II luy fit voir dans fon fommeil, vne efchelle femblable a celle de Iacob: Elle en voypit plufieurs qui tomboient a la renuerfe des le premier pas, ou des le premier degre de 1'efclielle: He who utters the word " mother " [] utters the name of one who loves; and he who speaks of a well-born child, speaks of a heart full of love and respect.

Our Novice could forsake neither God nor her parents. She would have wished either that her mother might become a Nun with her, or that her parents might convert their house into a Monastery of her Order; for to speak of separation was to speak of death.

She would rather have died a thousand times than quit the plow-handle and turn back ; and poor nature suffered, in her, strange convulsions and anguish at the thought that she was about to deprive herself, for the rest of her days, of her good mother's delightful conversation.

He who holds all nature suspended in his hand, who knows the number of the stars, who gives force to the winds, and sets bounds to the floods and storms of the sea, cured her of this temptation in a moment. He caused her to see in her sleep a ladder like that of Jacob ; with one end it touched the heavens, and with the other it rested on the earth.

Many people were climbing this ladder, aided by their good Angels, who gently wiped away the sweat [] which the toil and exertion called forth from their foreheads and their entire faces. Some of them she saw who fell backward at the first step, or at the first round of the ladder; others tumbled headlong from the middle ; and a small number, surmounting the diffi- culties of a road so straight and so steep, arrived at last at the top, and gained the victory.

Si toft que noftre ieune Profeffe fut enrollee en la milice de Iefus-Chrift, on luy mit les armes en la main pour combattre fes ennemis, fcauoir eft l'igno- rance des petites filles qu'on luy donna a. Cet exercice qui eft bas dans les ames mercenaires, l'efle- uoit a la dignite des Anges gardiens. It needed no questioning of GEdipus for the explanation of this enigma ; the Spirit of God was its interpreter. He cracked the stone, and made her taste its kernel.

That love of the child of Adam which held her fettered by the eyes and heart of flesh, was changed in an instant to a love which does not destroy nature, but sanctifies it, — a love stronger, but freer ; a love which regards not time, but eter- nity. Her fidelity in resisting that stifling love ; her greatness of soul in never revealing it to her parents, for fear that they would take advantage of it to oppose her calling ; her resolve to suffer, for the rest [] of her days, the tyranny of that love, rather than take a backward step and desert her post, — won for her that holy and unfettered love which, after freeing her from her bondage, gave her the means to offer to God, in deep peace, a veritable sacrifice, — or, rather, an entire holocaust of herself; uniting herself closely to him in separating herself from all his creatures, by means of the vows of her profes- sion, which she took at the age of sixteen.

And never after that time did the love of her parents cause her trouble ; and the fear of severing her connection with them was so banished from her heart that she after- ward, without any difficulty, put more than a thousand leagues' distance between herself and them.

As soon as our young Professed nun was enrolled in the army of Jesus Christ, weapons were put into her hands to combat his enemies, — namely, the ignorance of the little girls given her to teach, and the evil tendencies of their nature.

This pursuit — a low one, to mercenary souls — raised her to the dignity of the guardian Angels. De la vient qu'affez fouuent elle demandoit a fa Superieure difpenfe de voir les perfonnes dont elle croyoit que la conuerfation fe pafferoit fans fruid:.

LA Mere de S. If she instructed them in civility, if she taught them to read or write, or if she made them learn some work, she always made her instruc- tion bear on their salvation, gently inculcating in them how they were to sanctify these occupations, and derive therefrom help for their salvation.

In a word, her sole object, during almost all her life, was to cause God to be known and loved by those with whom she had intercourse. Conversation that did not have to do with piety she could not endure ; and if any one by some digression of too great freedom wished to draw her into talk which savored of the world, she would lead him back again with a holy dexterity ; or if he were persistent, she would retire from the Grating or else would take the liberty to speak to him according to her feelings, without respect to human considerations, saying that one must not be less free and less bold in upholding the good than some [] were in destroy- ing it.

Hence it was that she not infrequently asked her Superior to excuse her from seeing those whose conversation she believed would be fruitless.

Joseph possessed an intelligence that was quick, clear, and highly enlightened. Eftant done fur le point de prendre cet eflor, Noftre Seigneur luy fit voir ce que ie vay raconter. Ces beautez mifes en leur iour, brilloient auec vn merueilleux 6clat: Elle y vit entrer vn Religieux de fa con- noiflance, qui fut incontinent enchant6 auffi bien que les autres. Ce qui l'efpouuenta plus fortement dans ce danger, fut, que ne pouuant retourner en arriere, elle fe voyoit comme dans la contrainte de fe ietter dans ce precipice.

Mais au moment qu'elle fe croy- oit perdue, il parut vne troupe ou vne compagnie de ieunes gens, faits iuflement comme les Sauuages de la nouuelle France, qu'elle n'auoit pas encore veus: L'vn d'eux portoit vn guidon efcrit de certains mots d'vne langue eftragere.

Being, then, on the point of taking this flight, Our Lord made her see what I am about to relate. She found herself, in the quiet of night, at the entrance to a large square surrounded on all sides by shops. These beautiful things, advantageously displayed, shone with a marvelous brilliancy; so that all those who entered this square were immediately enamored of them. She saw enter there a Friar of her acquaint- ance, who was forthwith enchanted, as well as the others.

What most frightened her in this danger was, that, not being able to retreat, she saw herself apparently forced to throw herself into this abyss. But, just as she thought herself lost, there appeared a troop or company of young people having exactly the appearance of the Savages of new France, whom she had not then seen.

One of them bore a standard inscribed with certain words in a strange tongue. She, greatly astonished, heard a voice which came from these olive-colored people, and which said to her: En fuite de ce deffein, elle fe tranfporta a Tours pour en obtenir quelques-vnes de Monfeign.

In a word, they put her in a place of safety. It is true, she did not at once know this, and she did not take her Benefactors for Savages ; but it must also be owned that the fondness she had always had for the salvation of souls, increased in ardor every day in her heart after this vision ; and that the reading of the Relations, which were sent every year from Canada, gave her most fervent desires to undertake things which she held as chimer- ical, not thinking the day was ever destined to come when she could realize them.

She spoke about them often to Mother Marie de 1' Incarnation, who burned with the same fire, which they both regarded as folly, — not seeing with what fuel it could be fed, and unable to conceive that persons of their sex and condition were destined ever to be sent even unto the ends of the world.

In pursuance of this plan, she repaired to Tours, to obtain some from Monsei- gneur the Archbishop and from Mother Frangoise de St.

Bernard, Superior of their Convent. Bernard, Superieure de leur Monaftere. Toute la Maifon des Vrfulines eftoit en feu, il n'y en auoit pas vne qui ne fouhaitat cette feconde place, exceptee noftre ieune Profeffe. Vous euffiez dit que le Demon [] luy auoit donne vn coup de maff ue fur la tefte: C'eft pourquoy s'eftant ouuerte a fa chere compagne la Mere de l'lncarna- - 53] RELA TION OF i6ji 99 sieur the Archbishop approved this enterprise, con- trary to the expectation of those who knew how much he was naturally opposed to things so new and unprecedented.

He ordered the Superior to give to Madame de la Pelterie Mother Marie de l'lncarnation, whom she asked for expressly, and to choose, by the advice of some persons whom he named, a companion for her. The whole House of the Ursulines was on fire, there being no one, except our young Professed Nun, who did not wish for this second place. You would have said that the Evil One [] had given her a blow on the head with a cudgel. She was colder than ice ; she seemed stunned and abashed ; and that great love that she felt for a good whose realization had appeared to her so advan- tageous, but impossible, was changed into a great aversion when she saw herself empowered to claim it.

And, although she honored Madame de la Pelte- rie as a saint, yet she regarded her, as well as the one who had been accorded her, as lost. It is a strange thing that the affairs of God are always attended with abhorrence and crosses. All her light was changed to darkness, her affections to estrange- ment, and her love to hate.

It is true, this noise and din were only in the kitchen or in the courtyard among the servants, — I mean, in the lower story of the passions; for she always had, in the inmost depths of her heart, and in her soul's highest cham- bers, a secret esteem for a calling so exalted. Hence it was that, upon unbosoming herself to her dear companion, Mother de l'lncarnation, these phantoms vanished, the curtain was withdrawn, and the day appeared to her, more beautiful than ever.

La-deffus' on fe met en deuoir d'en choifir vne autre. On expofe le faindt Sacrement, on fait les Prieres de quarante heures, afin que Dieu prefi- daft a cette 61edtion. Sa Prieure demeura fans parole: Those who knew her talents, and who had a love for this great work, believed that matters must not rest there ; they urged Mother de 1' Incarnation to ask for her as companion.

The Superior lent her a deaf ear. Thereupon the task of choosing another was undertaken: Strangely enough, in so great a num- ber, those with whom this choice rested could reach no conclusion except in favor of our Candidate ; in the case of all the others, there was something or other that proved an objection.

Accordingly, she went again to find the Mother Prioress, prostrated herself, and conjured her to be favorable to her in this emergency, unless she knew her to be unaccept- able to God. Her Prioress remained speechless; love made her fear to lose a girl whom she had tenderly nurtured, [] who had given her so much satisfaction, and who gave great promise for her house.

These reiterated demands, and the fear of resisting God and not yielding him what he desired, made her pass the whole night without sleeping ; and in this silence Our Lord took possession of her with such power, and gave her so much knowledge con- cerning the calling of her dear daughter, that she submitted, with the provision, however, that her parents should give their consent.

Le courrier trouua Meffieurs fes parens a Angers. II leur prefenta les lettres de leur chere fille. Mon- fieur de la Troche les [] lifant demeura tout paine" d'6tonnement. Madame de la Troche ; ayant vn peu repris fes efpris, commande qu'on mette les cheuaux au caroffe pour aller promptemet empefcher ce voyage.

Aum-toft dit, auffi-toft fait. Comme elle auoit defia vn pied dans le caroffe, parut vn Pere Carme, qui ayant appris le fujet d'vn voyage fi foudain, luy dit, Madame ie vous arrefte, permettez que ie vous die vn mot en voflre maifon. Elle obeit, quoy qu'auec peine, ils fen vont tous deux enfemble trouuer Monfieur de la Troche. Meanwhile the prayers were continued in the house, and our young Amazon took as advo- cate in her cause the great saint Joseph, asking of him not admission to Canadas, but that he would incline her parents' hearts to follow the promptings of the spirit of God; and she made a vow to him that, if his goodness should open that door to her, she would take and bear his name, and proceed under his auspices, in that remote quarter of the world.

Monsieur de la Troche, [] on reading them, was completely overcome with astonishment. Madame her mother, opening the sluice-gates of her tears and giving free vent to her grief, filled her whole house with alarm: Madame de la Troche, regaining her spirits somewhat, ordered the horses put to the coach, in order to go at once and prevent this voyage.

No sooner said than done. When she had one foot already in the coach, there appeared a certain Carmelite Father, who, upon learning the cause of so sudden a journey, said to her, ' Madame, I detain you; permit me to say a word to you in your house. Ne voila pas des parens, dignes d'auoir efle honorez d'vne fi fainte fille? Madame de la Troche ayant fait fon facrifice, ne demandoit plus que la fatisfadtion d'aller embracer encor vne f ois fa chere fille ; de luy pouuoir aller donner le dernier adieu: Ce bon Religieux luy dit, auec vne fainte franchife, non Madame vous n'irez pas: Faites l'holocaufte tout entier ; il fufnt que vous luy ecriuiez, felon les fentimens que Dieu vous donne.

Son confeil fut fuiuy. Iofeph, fuiuant le vceu qu'elle en auoit fait, elle triomphe de ioye, fe remettant en memoire la fuite de fa vocation: Were they not parents worthy of being honored by so holy a daughter? What will be said before God by the Communities from which such eminent subjects are not demanded, when they see a house give the dear- est that it has, and parents deprive themselves of the object of their love and tenderness?

This good Religious, with a holy frankness, said to her: Offer the holo- caust in all its entirety. It is sufficient for you to write to her according to the feelings that God gives you.

Monsieur and Madame de la Troche wrote two letters, of such [] piety and Christian spirit that they drew tears from all who read them. This news having arrived, the name of Marie St. Joseph was given to Mother Marie de saint Bernard, in accordance with the vow which she had made in the matter.

Monfieur l'Archeuefque ayant appris que le choix des deux Meres eftoit fait, les fit venir en fon Palais, ce fainct. Et le Cantique de la faindte Vierge. In a word, she made ready for that long voyage of a thousand leagues in a straight line, and of more than three thousand in the detours and tacks that had to be made. Monsieur the Archbishop, learning that the choice of the two Mothers was made, summoned them to his Palace, where this holy old man gave them his blessing.

He urged them to embrace with courage the Cross of the son of God, — using the same words that our Lord uttered to his Apostles upon sending them on their Missions, and making them sing the Psalm, In exitu Israel de Aigypto, etc. He dismissed them, with astonishment at seeing the strength and constancy of those three Amazons, for Madame their foundress was of the party. The greater number envied her happy lot, although some trembled at the thought of the dangers she might encounter by land and sea.

Be that as it may, she departed from Tours with her dear companion, on the twentieth day of February in the year sixteen hundred and thirty-nine. On ne remarquoit aucune ieuneffe dans cette grande ieuneffe, ce n'eftoit que [] maturite.

But the remedies, both of dreams and of these diviners, were mostly vain and useless although all, vying with one another, applied them- selves to procure the things desired, — as the charla- tan said, by the sick man's soul, — without sparing either expense or effort. More than one of ours, at the start, ran the risk of life for not being willing, in such cases, to cooperate in their superstitions.

These remedies, commonly esteemed superstitious, served then, only to show the esteem in which the sick persons were held, — who, when influential, often pretended to be sick, in order to be honored by the respect of the public. To this procedure the patient was always obliged, out of gratitude, to attribute his health, — even though he felt worse than before; and, because those who did so from vanity would suddenly rise upon their feet, belief in the efficiency of these remedies, although they were altogether vain and useless, was common in the country.

This they often boasted of removing, with the point of a knife, from some part of the body, — substituting, by a ruse, something which they themselves held concealed between the fingers, or elsewhere.

Con tutti i mali fuccelTi di quelle cure era queita opinione di fuperftitione si radicata in tutto il paefe, che k pena in molti anni s' e potuta fminuire L' origine di queilo errore era vn falfo principio, ma tra loro indubitato, che tutti li rimedij portano fempre infallibilmente il loro efifetto, fe dunque 1' ammalato non guariua con vn rimedio naturale, la malattia era fopranaturale, e vi bifognaua vn rimedio fopranatu- rale, e fuperftitiofo.

La maggior parte de loro rimedij, come deboliffimi non operaua; concludeuan dunque, che quafi tutte 1' infermitk erano foprana- turali, o di fortilegi, 5 di defiderij occulti dell' anima, e la fuperllitione correua per tutto, ancorche noi dopo lungo, e diligente efame non habbiamo potuto con- uincerli ne' rimedij 6 nelle malattie di cofa alcuna, che fuperi le forze della natura, ne ritrouar alcun veltigio di vera magia, 5 ftregheria, e maleficio: Notwith- standing all the bad results of these treatm'ints, this superstitious notion was so rooted throughout the country that scarcely in many years could it be diminished.

The origin of this error was a false principle, but one undisputed among them, that all remedies always infallibly have their effect; if, then, the patient did not recover with a natural remedy, the malady was supernatural, and there was need of a supernatural and superstitious remedy.

The greater part of their remedies, as being very impo- tent, did not operate ; they then concluded that almost all diseases were supernatural, — either from spells, or from secret desires of the soul.

Superstition, therefore, was everywhere current, although we, after long and diligent investigation, were not able to convince them that in their remedies or in their diseases there was nothing above the forces of nature; nor could we find any trace of true magic, or witch- craft, and evil art, because the demon which pos- sessed them so absolutely, and without meeting any opposition in the soul, does not care, perhaps, to become their slave, as is the case with wizards, whose souls he claims in payment of slight services which he renders them.

It confirmed us in this opinion to see that they had a superstitious regard for every- thing which savored a little of the uncommon. If, for instance, in their hunt they had difficulty in kill- ing a Bear or a Stag, and on opening it they found in its head or in the entrails a bone, or a stone, or a serpent, etc. L' ilteffo crediamo ancora piii certo d' alcuni che fi fpacciauano no folo per Profeti, ma anco per pa- droni delle ftagioni, i quali quafi mai 1' indouinauano, e pure non perdeuano il credito; anzi la perfuafione, che haueano della moltiplicitk de fortilegij, e ftreghe- rie, pafl!

If they found in a tree, or beneath the soil, some stone of an uncom- mon shape, like a plate, or spoon, or any vessel, they esteemed this encounter fortunate ; because certain demons they said , which live in the woods, forget these things, which make any person who finds them again successful in fishing, hunting, [24 i. These objects they called Aas- kuandi, and believed that they often changed form, transforming themselves, for instance, into a serpent, or a raven's beak, or an Eagle's claw, etc.

These latter sold them, at a tolerably high price, rare but worthless objects, merely through their persuasion that this superstition brought them advan- tage. On the contrary, the confidence of the Savage. And yet, by a wonderful provi- dence of God, the demon has never had the power to injure, by this means, the Preachers of the Gospel.

E pure per vna prouidenza mirabile di Dio, il demonic non hk mai hauto il potere di nuocere per queflo mezzo k Predicatori dell' Euangelio. Vorrei per conclufione di quefta materia auuertire quelli, che s' impiegano nella conuerfione de' nuoui paefi, k non credere facilmente, e fenza vn diligente efame le cofe ifteffe, che fono con 1' approbatione comune de' fecoli ftimate fenz' alcun dubio.

E facile di condannare di luperllitione molte leggerezze, e prohibirle come tali; ma non h facile il difdirfi, ed' impedire il difprezzo ne' piu fenfati, che fapeuano il fecreto.

It is easy to condemn, on the ground of superstition, many frivolities, and to prohibit them as such ; but it is not easy to recant, or to avoid contempt from the most sensible, who knew the secret. We were somewhat severe on this point, and obliged our first Christians, who found supersti- tion everywhere, to deny themselves not only lawful recreations, but also intercourse with others, and more than half of the social life, — until time, examina- tion, and experience assured us of the contrary.

These last the women solemnly bewail, — especially in the [25 i. There was a certain mother, who kept in her hut for whole years the body of her dead son, although very putrid; they do not believe that the soul, even when separated, withdraws thus suddenly from the body. S' e troaata qualche madre, che hk conferuato in cafa gli anni intieri il cadauero del morto figlio, ancorche grande- mente puzzolente, dal quale non credono slontanarfi cosl fubito r anima ancor feparata.

Vanno fpeffo, maffime le donne, k piangere a' fepolchri de' loro defonti, che fono fuori delle terre, comunemente tutti in vno fteffo campo, ma ciafcuno da fe in aria fopra 4. There they leave them until a feast which they call ' ' the feast of the dead, ' ' which they make every 8 or 10 years. At that time, all those of the same village take down these coffins, and care- fully scrape the flesh from the bones of their departed ; and, having enveloped them in precious skins, with an invitation to the whole country, they solemnly bury them all together, forever, in a great trench richly lined, — where they also bury various gifts, kettles, etc.

Secondly, they bury the corpses with what they had most pre- cious in life; and, at the burning of a village, — pre- ferring the dead to the living, and the sepulchers to the cabins, — they did not feel troubled at incurring an irreparable loss, that they might save the bones of their departed before extinguishing the fire in their own cabins.

Terzo, fe la memoria de' parenti gik defoti gli affligge fenfibilmete, molto piu li difpiace d' vdirne fauellare, e la piii grand' ingiuria, che 1 polfa dire ad vn' huomo, e il dirli, tiio padre, 6 tua madre, 6 i tuoi parenti fon morti, anzi folamente il dire, i tuoi morti, Itimano la piia horribile di tutte le maledittioni fola capace di far venire vna perfona con vn' altra alle mani.

Thirdly, if the memory of kinsmen already dead afflicts them sen- sibly, much more does it displease them to hear these mentioned ; and the greatest insult that can be said to a man is to say to him: But if the name of the deceased were famous, it is never lost, but it is assumed again by the head of the family at some solemn banquet ; and this person is said to have brought him to life again. This was infallibly observed in all the names of Captains, who thus never die.

Ma fe il nome del defonto era famofo mai fi perde, ma fi ripiglia dal primo della famiglia in qualche folenne feflino, e quefto li dice che 1' hk rifuf citato. E s' offerua infallibilmente ne' nomi tutti de Capitani, che cosl non rnuoiono mai. Mi reiia prima di finire quefka prima parte k rifpon- dere k 3.

La prima, e fe le here del fluffo, e rifluffo ne' lidi deir America fiano 1' ifteffe, che nei noftri dell' Eu- ropa, 6 le oppofle, e quefto per fapere fe il principio di quelto moto venga dal mezzo del mare k due lidi eftremi, 6 da lidi dell' Europa k quelli dell' America per modum vnius.

Lafcio, che quando fi farebbe di lido k lido vi vorrebbe vn tempo troppo notabile al mare per fare vn moto di tremila miglia, anzi anco quando fi farebbe nel mezzo per fame k ciafcuno degli eftremi vno di i5o[o]. E rifpondo direttamente alia queftione, primo, che il fluffo, e rifluffo non fi fa regolato che alle fpiagge del mare, ma The first is, whether the hours of the flow and ebb of tides on the shores of America are the same as on ours of Europe, or the opposite; and this, for the sake of knowing whether the beginning of this movement comes from the middle of the sea, to the two extreme shores, or from the shores of Europe to those of America, per modiim unius.

After diligent examinrition, with the aid of excellent seamen, I have found that the matter takes place in neither one way nor the other. I grant that, if it should occur from shore to shore, there would be required too considerable a time on the sea to accomplish a movement of threa thousand miles; the same would also be true, if it should occur in the middle, in order to compass one of miles to each of the extremes ; and yet the tide rises in six hours, and in six it returns.

And I answer directly to the question: Secondly, that in some places — as in the gulf into which the river of St. Lawrence flows which is the great river of Canada , therefore called the gulf of St. Lawrence — the current during some months bears toward the sea; during some others. Lorenzo che 6 il gran fiume di Canadk detto per quefto il golfo di S. Lorenzo, la corrente alcuni mefi porta verfo il mare, alcuni altri verfo terra, Terzo, che nel fiume di S.

Lorenzo largo come habbiam detto La feconda quellione fe, d' onde venga tanta copia d' acqua vniuerfale quafi in tutta 1' America. Quefta queflione pu6 bauere due fenfi, vno hiliorico, 1' altro filofofico, vno quafi formale, 1' altro efficiente. Nel primo la rifpofta e facile, e 1' bo fatta con la nuoua carta. Thirdly, that in the river of St. Law- rence,— 60 miles wide, as we have said; that is, like the Adriatic sea, — in the Southern part there is never a flow, but always an ebb; and in some parts of it, near the North shore, the water rises and falls every day without a flow, [27 i.

And yet, after some hundreds of miles in the same river, the flow and ebb is everywhere regular, 6 hours apart, just as on the shores of the sea; although, in proportion as the distance thence increases, the flow diminishes, with an increase of the ebb, which finally reaches more than hours, leaving little more than two for the flow.

There is perhaps some motion and secret impulse in the depth of the water, which does not appear at the surface. There is sufficient rot. This question may have two senses, — one historic, the other philosophical; one referring, as it were, to the formal, the other, to the efficient cause.

To the first the answer is easy, and I have given it according to the new chart or map which has been recently engraved at Paris, — on which are seen the many and vast lakes which furnish the water neces- sary to the great river of St. Why do they not dry up or diminish after so many centuries? Dir5 bene, che non fi fcarica nel mare si gran copia d' acqua, che pare "k prima vifta ; perche il fluffo del mare ogni 6.

La tcrza e, fe la declinatione della calamita h la medefima, che qui, e fe ne habbiamo trouata qualche regola. A quefta queftione la rifpofta e facile. I will say, indeed, that not so great an abundance of water ib discharged into the sea, as appears at first sight; because the flood-tide of the sea every 6 hours forms a sort of watery dike against the water itself, — even forcing it back, against its nature, with an unspeak- able vehemence, over miles within the river; and hardly has it returned with the ebb-tide to the first dike, when the new flood-tide drives it back as before ; therefore, little water is discharged into the sea.

To this question the answer is easy. In 4 voyages which I have made to those parts, with frequent observations, I have always constantly discovered that, on starting from the coasts of France, — from either Normandy, or Brittany, or Aquitaine, where the declination is from 2 to 3 degrees from the North toward the East, as far as the Azore Islands; or from Flanders, as indi- cated on tbs maps, — this declination always dimin- ishes, until it is finally reduced to naught.

But as one sails Westward from those Islands, it sensibly increases, in such sort that, after a thousand or a thousand and miles, — that is, in the sea where they fish for cod which [28 i. Ma profeguendo la nauigatione pure verfo 1' Occidente vk fenfibilmente fminuendo in modo tale, che dopo 6oo. Kebek non e piii, che di i6. I J 1 ] BRESSANPS RELATION, , 41 But, as one continues navigating still Westward, the declination continues perceptibly to diminish, in such a way that, after miles or more,— that is, at Ke- bek,— it is no more than 16 degrees; and, the further one penetrates toward the West and inland, the more it decreases, until, in the country of the Harons, who are by 35 minutes of an hour further west than Kebek, it is no more than 12 degrees.

Let this be sufficient for what pertains to the nature of the Canadians, and to their seas and countries. Delia Conuerfione de' Canadefi alia Fede.

NON e ftata vna piccola fatica la conuerfione di quefli popoli k Dio, di cui non fapeuano ne anche il nome, non che il culto, ed i mifteri: Quando bifogna quafi conquiftar la fede con la punta della fpada, fi vede, che cofa h hauerla fucchiata col latte. Of the Conversion of the Canadians to the Faith. THE conversion of these peoples to God has not been a slight labor, — they knew not even his name, or yet his worship and mysteries.

As for the roving Barbarians, it has been necessary to incur very great expense, in order to redu them to some stability, without which, it was believed, their instruction in the Faith was impossible, and to this end have been employed the large alms of a great number of persons full of zeal and charity for those unfortunate people, after the example of the invin- cible King Louis XIII.

More than ordinary gentleness and strength were also necessary ; to this need the Hospital and the Seminary for Girls — erected at Kebek, which is the first fort of the French near the sea — have greatly ministered.

In one of these are the Nuns whom in France they call Hospitaliires, who crossed over from the City of Dieppe; and, in the other, those whom we call Ursu- lines, who went thither from Paris and Tours, along with their foundress, most of them from very noble families. Pretendo dunque folamente in breue dire alcuna cofa de' principij, e del fine della Miffione degli Hu- roni, che fono quel popoli, che habbiamo detto efler ftabili, con Terre, e Cafielli, lontani da Kebek circa But my design is not to enlarge upon the conversion of those peoples whose missions still con- tinue ; [29 i.

I therefore intend only to say something in brief of the beginning and the close of the Mission of the Hurons; these are the tribes whom we have men- tioned as being stationary, with Towns and Villages, about miles distant from Kebek, and from Europe. And, because the strength of the arm of God was seen in this work, I will here set forth various difficulties which opposed it. Q VESTA Miffione h ftata fonza efempio, e ften- tdtiffima; fenza efempio, perche non fappiamo, che altroue i Predicatori della Fede ne i paefi flranieri, fiano andati per far dimora labile si Icn- tano dal mare, con impoffibilitk di foccorfo d' Europa per il viuere, veftire, e tutte 1' altre neceffitk della natura, Le Miffioni fi fono communemente ftabilite ne' luoghi, done 5 naui, 6 almeno barche poteuan recare alcun foccorfo, e quindi li miflionanti fi dipar- tiuano per qualche tempo, per terra, 6 per acqua in varij luoghi.

THIS Mission was unprecedented, and extremely arduous, — unprecedented because we do not know that the Preachers of the Faith elsewhere in foreign countries have gone to make a fixed resi- dence so far from the sea, without possibility of aid from Europe in the matter of food, clothing, and all other necessities of nature.

Missions have usually been established in places where ships — or, at least, boats — could bring some assistance; and thence the missionaries would depart for some time, by land or by water, into various qus. But the mission of tte; Hurons lasted more than sixteen years, in a country whither one cannot go with other boats than of bark, which carry at the most only two thousand livres of burden, including the passengers, — who are frequently obliged to bear on their shoulders, from four to six miles, along with the boat and the provisions, all the furniture for the journey; for there is not, in the space of more than miles, any inn.

Ma come quefta natione era la chiaue di moltiffime altre anche Itabili, che c' afficurauano elTer' in gran numero verfo 1' Occidente, fu riguardata come cofa di grandiffima importanza, e percib con altretanta magnanimity intraprefa da alcuni Padri riformati deir Ordine Serafico di San Francefco, e da alcuni de' noftri prima 1' anno Quefti popoli furono da' Francefi conofciuti non per viaggi, che effi vi faceffero i primi, effendo le loro terre quafi inacceffibili ad ogni Euro- peo, ma perche gli Huroni hauuta la nuoua delle naui Francell, che veniuano ogn' anno a quei lidi, li rifolfero k quel difficiliffimo viaggio.

II primo de' noltri, che vi pafso la prima volta in compagnia di due Padri riformati dell' Ordine di San Francefco, fu il Padre Giouanni de Brebeuf, il quale prefo, come diceuamo al principio, da gl' Ingleli, e. All this, having been foreseen and examined, caused many to believe [30 i. But, as this nation was the key to very many others, also stationary, — who, they assured us, dwelt in great number toward the West, — this mission was regarded as a matter of the utmost importance.

It was there- fore undertaken, with corresponding greatness of soul, by some reformed Fathers of the Seraphic Order of Saint Francis and by some of ours, for the first time, in the year , — but without great result, owing to their ignorance of the language; then, more substantially, in the year , after the English were constrained to abandon that country, by Reli- gious of our Society alone.

These tribes were known to the French, not through journeys which the latter first made thither, — their towns being almost inac- cessible to every European, — but because the Hurons, obtaining news of the French ships, which came every year to those shores, resolved to imdertake that most difficult journey.

The first of ours who went thither for the first time, in company with two reformed Fathers of the Order of Saint Francis, was Father Jean de Brebeuf. Ecco come ne ferine il detto Padre de Breueuf al Superiore della Miffione. The Gov- ernor of the country and the Father also did the utmost on their side, — and this in ways which it would be too tedious here to report. It lacked but little that he hindered it also in the following year, , in which the number of the Hurons who had come down was incomparably smaller, and among them were many sick.

They would gladly have embarked a certain young Frenchman, with arms for the chase and for war ; but they did not wish to load themselves with people who wore cassocks, — esteeming them useless, and even prejudicial, to their interests ; but the time appointed by the divine providence having arrived, the constancy of ours overcame all the oppositions of Hell.

Here follows Father de Brebeuf's letter on this matter to the Superior of the Mission: We added new presents to the Barbarians, and lessened our own burdens, — carrying nothing else than what was absolutely necessary for the Holy Mass, and for liv- ing by the way," etc.

Haueuano abbandonati alcuni de' noftri in qualche fcoglio, ma altri Barbari gli ban prefi nelle loro Cance, e cosl per gratia di Dio nullus perijt. At the portages," that is, at the waterfalls, where every- thing is carrier", "we had to make four journeys, burdened above our strength, until we could no longer exert it; but not without consolations of Paradise. They had abandoned some of ours on a certain rock, but other Barbarians took them into their Canoes ; and thus, by the grace of God, nullus periii.

THERE is, besides the common perils, the dan- ger, sufficiently obvious, of falling into the hands of other barbarians, their enemies, who are most cruel assassins, capable of terrifying the most courageous; and because this danger is not only imaginary but actual, — more than one of our missionaries having incurred it, — I have judged it expedient, in order to give an idea thereof before passing to the other difficulties of this mission, to insert here certain letters from one of those mission- aries who was captured by the enemy on this jour- ney ; I reserve for a more suitable place the captivity of another, who died there.

Here follows what he writes to our Father General, and to some friends in Europe. I KNOW not whether Your Paternity zvill recognize the letter of a poor cripple, who formerly, zvhen in perfect health, ivas well known to you.

The letter is badly writ- ten, and quite soiled, because, in addition to other incon- veniences, he who writes it has only one luhole finger on his right hand; and it is difficult to avoid staining the paper with the blood ivhich floivs from his wounds, not yet healed: He writes it from the country of the Hiro- quois, where [32 i. Part ij da tre fiutni per ordine de Supe- riori li Pietro, e due Huroni h nuoto mi Jlrafcinarono h terra. Gli Huroni prefero quejio accidente per vn cattiuo augtirio, e mi conji- gliorno di ritornar d' onde erauamo partiti; non ejfendone ancor lontani, che 8.

II terzo giorno non effendo lontani fe non Prefi, che ci hebbero f'cero gridi horribili [33 i. I started from three rivers by order of the Superior, on the ijth of last April, — in company with six Christian Barbarians, and a young Frenchman, zvith three canoes, — to go to the country of the Hurons.

The first evening, the Huron zvho was guidifig our canoe, wishing to shoot at an Eagle, ivas the occasion of our ivreck in the lake named for St. Peter; two Hurons, by szvimming, dragged me to land, as I did not know how to swim, and there zve spent the night, all drenched. The Htirons took this accident for a bad omen, and cou7iseled me to return whence we had started as zvc zvere not yet more than 8 or 10 miles distant thctice.

They declared that certainly the journey would not result well for us; but I, zvho suspected some superstition in this discourse, judged it best to pro- ceed to another French fort, 30 miles farther, zvhere I hoped that we might refresh ourselves. They obeyed me, and we started for that place on the follozving m,,. We might have fled, or indeed killed some Hiroquois; but I, for my part, on seeing my companions taken, judged it better to remain with them, — accepting as a sign of the will of God the inclina- tion and almost resolution of those who conducted me, who chose rather to surrender than to escape by flight.

Those who had captured us made horrible cries, [33 i. Mi cdfolaua in quejlo pato il fapere, che cib era la volontk di Dio, hauendo intra- prefo quejlo viaggio per obedicza, e fperauo molto neW intercejl. Il dl feguente c imbarcdmo in vn Jiume, doue a pena haueuamo fatte poche miglia, che mi comddarono di get tar neW acqua i miei fcritti, che in haueuano fin allhora lafciati, come che fujjero Jlati caufa a quel, die fuper- Jiitiofavtete credeuano d' effcrfi rotta la nostra canoa, e fi.

Jiupirono, che io di cib mojlraffi quale he fentimento, nd hauendolo dimojlrato nella perdita di tutt'- il reJlo. Nauigammo ancor due dl contro il correntr del fiume, finche frimmo cosiretti dalle cafcate a pigliar terra, e caminammo fei giorni ne bofchi.

II fecondo, che era vn Venerdl li fei di Maggio incontrammo altri Hirochefi, che andauano alia guerra, i quali accompagnarono inolte minacce con [34 i. Then, havmg taken from us everything, — that is, provisions for all of ours who lived among the Hurons, who ivere in extreme necessity, as they had not been able for several years to obtain help from Europe, — they commanded us to sing. Mcamvhilc, they led us to a little neighboring river, where they divided the spoils, and tore atvay the scalp and hair, from the slaugh- tered Huron, in order to carry it as in triumph, attached to a pole; they also cut off his feet and hands, along tvith the most fleshy parts of the body, to eat them, with the heart.

Then they made us cross the lake, to spend the night in a place somewhat retired, but very damp, — in ivhich we began to sleep, bound and in the open air, as during the remainder of the journey. It consoled me in this matter to know that this was the will of God, as I had undertaken this journey throtigh obedience; and I hoped much from the intercession of the Virgin, and that of many souls who tvere praying for me.

On the following day, zve embarked on a river upon which we had hardly made a few miles when they com- manded me to throw into the zvater my writings, zvhich they had left zvith me till then, — as if these had been the cause, as they superstitiojcsly believed, of the wreck of our canoe; and they zvere astonisiied that I shoived some feeling on that score, not having shotvn any at the loss of everything else.

We still voyaged tivo days against the current of the river, until zve were constrained by the rapids to go ashore; and we traveled six days in the woods. The second day, — zvhich zvas a Friday, the sixth of May, — we met other Hiroquois, zvho zvere going to war. They accompanied many threats zvith [34 i. A If da vn Francefe. Qtiando ci prefer o tnoriuano di fame, onde in due, b tre giorni confiimarono tiitte le noflre provifioni, e net refio del viaggio non Ji viueua, che b di caccio, b di pefca, b di quale he radica faluatica fe fi trouana.

When they seized us, they were dying with hunger; therefore in two or three days they consumed all our provi- sions, and for the remainder of the journey there zuas no food except from either hunting or fishing, or from some wild root, if any were found.

During the extreme hunger which we suffered, they found on the shore of the river a dead and putrid beaver, which at evening they gave to me, that I might wash it in the river; but, having throw?

I will not write here what I suffered on that journey; enough to know that zve marched, carrying burdens, in the woods, where there is no road at all, but only stones, or young shoots, or ditches, or ivater, or snow, — which was not yet everywhere melted. Wc traveled tvithout shoes; fasting sometimes till three and four 0' clock in the afternoon, and often whole days; exposed to the rain, and soaked in the ivater of the torrents and rivers which zve had to cross.

At evening, my office was to gather the wood, carry the zvater, atid do the cooking, when there was any; and if I came short in anything, or did not under- stand well, the blows were not lacking, — and much less did these fail, ivhen we happened to meet people who were going either fishing or hunting; besides, I was hardly able to rest at night, for being bound to a tree and exposed to the severity of the air, zvhicJi was still quite cold.

We finally reached their lake, on which — when they had made other canoes, at which it was necessary for me to assist them — -we sailed five or six days, after ivhich we landed, and there we made three days journey on foot. Ci fecero cantare finche i foldati fe n' andaffero, e ci lafciarono trh le mani de giouani del luogo.

At about ttvo hundred paces from their cabins, they stripped me naked, and made me go first; on either side, the young men of the country stood in line, every one with his stick in hand, but the first of them had, instead of the stick, a knife. Then, as I began to proceed, this one suddenly stopped me; and, having taken my left hand, with the knife xvhicit he held, he made in it an incision be- tween the little finger and the ring-finger, zvith so much force and violence that I believed he would split my zuhole hand; and the others began to load me tvith blows as far as the stage prepared for our torment.

Then they made tiie mount upon some great pieces of bark, about nine palms above the ground, — in order that we might be seen and viocked by the people. I was Jiow bruised all over, and covered zvith blood, zvhich was floiving from all parts of my body, — and "xposed to a very cold xvind, zvhich made it suddenly congeal over the skin; but I greatly consoled viyself to see that God granted me the favor of suffering m this world some little pain in place of that zvhich I was under obligation, because of my sins, to pay in the other with torments incomparably greater.

Meanzvhile, the warriors arrived, and zvere magnificently received by the people of this village; and, zvhen they zvere refreshed with. Some time after, a Huron slave brought us a dish of turkish [Indian] corn; and a Captain, seeing me tremble zvith cold, at my urgency finally tossed back to me the half of an old summer garment, all torn, [36 i.

They made us sing until the warriors went 'f? Bifo- gnaua obedire fino h fanciulli in cofe ancora poco ragioneuoli, e fpejfo contrarie. Mi comandauano, che io pigliajji il fuoco con le dita per metterlo nelle loro pippe, nelle quali pigliano il tabacco, e poi Io faceunno h pojla cadere quattro, e cinque lolte feguitamente per farmi bruciar le mani con raccog- lierlo di nuouo da terra. Quedo Ji faceua d' or dinar io la nottc. They kept us in this place five or six days for their pastime, exposed to the discretion or indiscretion of everybody.

It was necessary to obey the very children, and that in things little reasonable, and ofteti contrary. They commanded nie to take the fire in my fingers, and put it into their pipes, in which they took tobacco; and then they purposely made it fall four or five times in succession, in order to make me burn my hands by pickifig it up again from the ground.

This was usually done at night. Toward evening, the Cap- tains shouted throjigh the cabins with frightful voices: Then some pricked me with sharp sticks, others with firebrands; these burned me with red-hot stones, those with hot ashes arid lighted coals. They made me walk around the fire, where they had fixed in the earth sharp sticks between the burning ashes; some tore out my hair, others my beard; and every night, after having made me sing, and tormented me as above, they would burn one of my nails [37 i.

Partimmo di qu a In six times, they burned nearly six of my fingers, — and more than 18 times they applied the fire and iron to my hands alone; and meamvhile it was necessary to sing. Thus they treated us till one or tzvo hours after midnight, and then they left me on the bare ground, usually tied to the spot, and exposed to the rain, zvithout other bed or cover than a small skin, which covered not the half of my body, — even at times without anything, because they had already torn up that piece of garment ; although, out of pity, they made of it for me etiough to cover that which decency does not permit to be uncovered, even among themselves, but retained the rest.

I was treated in this way, and ivorse, for a ivhole month; but, at this first place, no longer than eight days. I would never have believed that a man could endure so hard a life. One night, tvhile they zvcre tor? He was heard tvith great attention, and then they uttered a loud shout in token of Joy, — resolving to treat me still zvorse, — and, on the following morning, condemned me to be burned alive, and eaten. They then began to guard me more strictly, not leaving me alone even [38 i.

We started thence on the 26th of May; and, four days later we arrived at the first Village of this nation. Penfatio di hauer perfo con la vijla I'occhio dritto, c non leuandomi di [39 i. The barbarian xvho conducted me tvas more cruel than the first, and I was wounded, zveak, ill fed, and half naked; more- over, I slept in the open air, bound to a stake or to a tree, trembling all night xvith cold, and from the pain of these bonds.

At difficult places in the road, I had need of some one to aid me because of my weakness, but all help was denied me; for this reason, I often fell, renewing my wounds; and to these they added nczv bloivs, in order to urge me to proceed, — thinking that I was feigning for the sake of staying behind, and then taking flight. On one occasion, among others, I fell into a river, and came near being drozvned; however, I got out, I know not how; and all drenched with water, together with a quite heavy bundle on my shoulders, I was obliged to complete about six miles more marching until evening.

They, meanwhile, jeered at me, and at my stupidity in having alloived myself to fall into the river; and they did not omit, at night, to burn off one of my nails. We finally arrived at the first village of that nation, where our entrance was similar to the former, and still more cruel, because — in addition to the blows with their fists, and other bloivs which they gave me on the most sensitive parts of the body — they split, for the second time, my left hand between the middle finger and the forefinger ; and I received beatings in so great number that they made me fall to the ground, half dead.

I thought that I would lose my right eye, with my sight; and, although I did not rise from the [39 i. Indeed, ivithout some other hindrance they ivould have ended by killing me, had not a Captain caused me to be dragged — as it were, by force — upon a stage of bark, similar to the first, where, soon afterivard, they cut off the thumb of my left hand and I 1 1 i i. In tanto fopragiunfe vna gran pioggia. Qui ci tormentarono con maggior crudeltci, e sfacciataggine, che mai, fenza vn momcnto di ripofo; mi forzauano h mangiar dell' immondezze, mi abbrugiorno il rejlo deir vnghie, e qualcJie dito delle inani, mi Jlorfero quelli de' piedi, c me ne fororno vno con vn tizzone, e non sb che non mi fecero vna volta, che mi finfi tramortito per far vijia di non accorgermi di qualche cofa poco decete, che faceuano.

Quejte notti le vegliauo quafi intiere, e mi parenano longhiffune, benche fuffero le piii corte deir anno. Dio mio, che far a il purgatorio? A pena trouauo chi w' imboccaffe. Mcamvkile a great rain came up, with thunder and lightning; and they went azvay, leaving us there, naked in the zuatcr, until some one, I know not who, taking pity on us, toward evening led us to his cabin.

Here they tormented us with greater cruelty and impudence than ever, zvithout a moment of rest: Surfeited with tormenting us here, they sent us to another Village, nine or ten miles distant, where, besides the other torments, already mentioned, they suspended me by the feet, — sometimes with cords, again zvith chains, which they had taken from the Dutch; with these, at night, they left me bound — hands, feet, and neck — to several stakes, — as usual, upon the bare ground.

Six or seven nights they tormented me in such fashion, and in such places, that I cotild net describe these things, nor could they be read, without blushing. On those nights, I was awake almost all night, and they appeared to me very long, althoigh they were the shortest of the year. In this manner of living I had become so fetid and horrible that every one drove me aivay like a piece of car- rion; and they approached me for no [40 i.

I zvas covered zvith I I! Ero coperto di fchifi animaletti, e non poteuo ne liberarmene, ne difendermene. Nelle mie piaghe nafceuano i vermi, de' quali d' vn deto folo ne cafcb in vn di piii di quattro. In my wounds, worms were produced; out of one finger alone, more than four fell in one day. Pater meus es ; mater mea, et soror mea, vermibus; factus eram mihimet ipsi gravis: I had an abscess in the right thigh, caused by blows and frequent falls, ivhich hindered vie from all repose, — especially as I had only skin and bone, and the earth, for bed.

Several times the Barbarians had tried, but to no purpose, to open it, ivith sharp stones, — not zvithout great pain to me. I was compelled to employ as Surgeon the renegade Huron who had been taken with us. The latter — on the day which, as was believed, was the eve of my death — opened it for me with four knife-thrusts, and caused blood and matter to issue from it, i?

I desired and was awaiting death, but not without some horror of the fire; I zvas preparing for it, hozvever, as best I could, and was heartily commending viyself to the Mother of mercy, zuho is truly Mater ama- bilis, admirabilis, potens, et clemens, consolatrix afflictorum, — who zvas, after God, the sole refuge of a poor sinner, [41 i. The Huron and Algonqtiin prisoners these are our Barbarians , instead of consoling me, zvere the first to torment me, in order to please the Hiroquois.

Ma non lo lafciaronofenza tormenti, perche, ancorche non hauejjfe pih di dodcci, b tredeci anni gli Mrapporno cinque vnghie con i deiiti, e gli Jlrinfero, aW arriuo nel pacfe, con cordicelle Jlrcttamente i polfi con acutijjlmo dolore, e tutto in mia prefoiza per affliggermi maggiormente. O che air hora fi fa altro giuditio di molte cofe, che coinumncmente fi flimano inolto, piaccia h Die, che io me ne ricordi, c ne approfitti.

Ma vedendo vna fera la Luna, correjji il mio errcre. Non fapeuo perche tanto differiffero la mia morte, mi differo, che era per ingraffarmi, prima di mangiarnii, ma non 7ie pigliauano i meszi. In fine vn dl conuennero per finirla. But they did not leave him without torments, for, although he was no more than twelve or thirteen years old, they tore out five of his nails with their teeth; and, at his arrival in the country, they botind his wrists tightly zvitJi thongs, causing him the acut est pain, — and all in my presence, in order to afflict vie the more.

Oh, at sucJi times, what a different opinion is held of many things which are commonly much esteemed! Please God that I remember it, and profit thereby. The days being irksome to me, and having no rest at night, I counted in the mojith five days more than I should; but, seeing the Moon one evening, I corrected my error.

I knew not why they deferred my death so long; they told me that it was to fatten me before eating me, but they took no means to do so. One day, at last, they assembled in order to despatch me. It was the igth of fune, which I reckoned as the last of my life; and I entreated a Captain that they would commute, if it was possible, the death by fire into some other, but another man exhorted him to remain firm in the resolution already taken. The first, nevertheless, assured me that I should die neither by fire nor by any other death; I did not believe him, and know not whether he himself spoke [42 i.

But, finally, it was as he said, because such was the will of God and of the Virgin Mother, — to tvhom I acknoxviedge my life, and that which I esteem still more, — a great strength in my troubles; may it please the Majesty of God that this redound to his greater glory and to my good.

Hanno frefcamente ainmazzato in vna capanna vno della lor ijlejja nationc, come inutile, e die non meritaua di viuere. Ma come non hebbe la commodity d' inuiar fubito quefta lettera, arriu5 in Europa accompagnata d' al- cune altre, che metterb qui con 1' ordine ifteffo, che furono fcritte.

They have recently slain in a cabin one of their otvn nation, as being jiseless, and as one who did not deserve to live. Of cojirse, I suffer someivhat here; my ivoiinds are not yet healed over, and many do not regard me xvith a favorable eye.

One cannot live ivithout crosses, and this one is of sugar in comparison ivith the past one. The Dutch cause me to hope for my ransom, and that of the Lad who was taken zvith me; the will of God be done, in time and in Eternity. The matter was not very difficult, and they ransomed me cheaply, on account of the small esteem in tvhich they held me, because of my want of skill for everything, and because they believed that I would never get well of my ailments.

I could not, in the time of my servitude, render to those unfortunates, for the evil which they did me, the good which I desired for them, zuhich was, to give them the knoxvlcdge of the true God.

Not knozving the language, I tried to instruct, by means of a captive interpreter, an old man zvho was dying; but pride hindered him from listening to me, — he anszvered me that a man of his age and standing should teach, and not be taught. I asked him zvhether he knew zu hit her he zvould go after death; he answered me, ' ' To the Sunset; ' ' and here he began to relate their fables and delusions, zvhich those zur etched people, blinded by the Demon, regard as the most solid truths.

I baptized no one except a Huron, whom they conducted to the place zvhere I was, in order to burn him; those who zvcre guarding me urged me to go to see him. I went thither zuiih repugnance, — they hav- ing falsely told me that he was not one of our Barbarians, and that I wojild not have understood him. I pass through the crozvd; they form in line for me, and allozv me to approach that man [44 i.

He zvas lying on the bare ground, zvitJiout being able to rest his head in any place; I, seeing near him a stone, push it with my foot as far as his head, that he may use it for a pillow. Then, — look- ing at me, and, either by some zvisp of beard zvhich I had left, or by some other sign, judging that I zvas a stranger, — he said to the person who had him in custody: Che dimando, dtcc egli?

I baptized htm then, zvith great satisfaction to both him arid myself; but although I had done so with some artifice, — having used a little water which I had had brought for giving him to drink, — the Hiroquois nevertheless perceived it.

The Captains, being, as soon as possible, ir formed of this, suddenly drove me from the cabin with anger and threats, — beginning to torment him again as before; and the following morning they finished roasting him alive.

Then, because I had baptized him, they carried all Im limbs, one by one, into the cabin where I abode, — skinning, in [45 i. The husband of the mistress of the cabin put at my feet the dead man s head, and left it there a considerable time, — reproaching me with ivhat I had done, by saying: Si Jihnano tutti Campioni, e Marti, difprezzano gli Europei, come gente vile, e codarda, e Ji penfano ejjfer nati per foggi agar il mondo, euanuerunt in cogitationibus fuis, e perb tradidit illos Dens in defideria cordis eorum, Ic fue jantifjhne oratiojii, e facrifitij, e di tiitta la Compagnia, che prega fempre per la conucrjione de gV infcdeli, potranno ottcnere, che Dio gli riguardi con occhio di pieth, e me con ejft, mafjhne ne' pericoli del mare, ne' qiiali entro, "Icurandofi, che e fano, e Jlroppiato farb fempre di V.

La terza lettera e fcritta dalV Kola di Rlie, e data alii Fummo, foggiunge, cacciati da Corfari Turchi i giorni intieri, ho fatto tiitto il viaggio con Hugcnotti, a' quali quefto nome di Papifla, e di Giefuita non lafciaua di difpiacere, non haueuo altro letto, che vna cafia nuda, doue non n. But that time has not yet arrived; their sins — and especially pride — are a great obstacle to the grace of God, Qui Immilia respicit, et alta k longe cognoscit. They all account themselves Champions, and as Mars: Your most holy prayers a?

From new Amsterdam, the T,ist of August, We were chased," he adds, "by Turkish Corsairs for whole days. I made the whole voyage with Huguenots, to whom the name of ' Papist ' or of ' Jesuit ' was, of course, displeasing; I had no other bed than a bare box, whereon I could not stretch out at full length: Eccola fedelmente tradotta dal Francefe.

La farb dunque con la mia folita feniplicita. Alia prima per qual cagione gV Hirochefi mi maltrattaffero tanto. Se amate, come dite, V anime noflre, amate dicono, anche i corpi, e non fiam piU, che vna [47 i. After 55 days of a tiresome navi- gation, I arrived in sailor's dress at the Isle of Rhe, in better health than I have thus far had in the 18 years, and over, during which I have been in the Society. I was obliged to a. Thanks be to God. Here it is, faith- fully translated from the French.

I will then give it tvith fny customary simplicity. Thus the first origin of this enmity is the Faith, which binds us, even at the peril of life, to friendship with those whom we convert, and, indirectly, to enmity zvith the Hiroquois. Tutti qtielli, che fan viaggio in Canadh, e particolar- mente quelli, che paffano ci gli Huroni, deuojio efporfi a que fli pericoli; e fe per timore de' tormenii de gV Hirochefi, b d' altro, niuno ardiffe di farlo, quella pouera gente h poco h pocofi ritrouerebbe affatto abbandonata, efens' alcunfoc- corfo fpiritualc, onde quei, che vi muoiono fon degni d' in- uidia.

There- fore they recently prolonged eight days the tor- ments — which they commonly despatch in one day — of a christian Barbarian, who publicly boasted of being such, and was called Joseph Onahre, whom they finally put to death with most ferocious rage. Thirdly, even if the occasion of the enmity and the torments of the Barbarians zvere not the Faith, which we are seeking to plant, I 'would not fear to expose myself to the same dangers for the aid of souls. For, if it be deemed a meritorious action to expose oneself to pesti- lence, though it were for nothing else than the aid of mere bodies, I zvould esteem myself too fortunate if God should grant me the grace of lositig my life in the help and con- version of souls.

All those zvho make a voyage to Canadh, and in particular those who go to the Hurons, must expose themselves to these dangers; and if, for fear of the tor- ments of the Hiroquois, or for other cause, no one dared to make it, those poor people tvotdd gradually become altogether abandoned, and without any spiritual assistance ; therefore, those who die there ought to be envied.

But, to say the truth, I did not so much consider all this to console myself, as that God and obedience had placed me in that situation; and I prayed him to accept my sacrifice as that of the pious [48 i.

La terza fit d' impedite in me, accomodando la gratia alia mia debolezza, e poca virtii, andie i primi moti di fdcgno contro i miei tormentatori, anzi li compatiuo. Quefl' Jiuomo, dicetio tra me fleffo piaceffe a Dio, che ne lo poteffi liber are col mio fangue [49 i.

Vengo alia terza delle occupation? I will then tell you, ivHh all sincerity, three graces and singular favors zvhich I received from God at that time: The body zvas extremely dejected, — scarcely could I open my lips to say a Paternoster; — but inwardly I discoursed with the same freedom and facility that I use at present.

The second grace was so to dispose my inzvard feelings that, in proportion to the dangers and pains zvhich increased from without, my mental condition likewise changed, and I had continually less horror of death a?

The third zvas, to prevent in me — by adapting the grace to my zveakness and little virtue — even the first impulses of resentment against my tormentors; on the con- trary, I pitied them. He is unhappy, and not I. I come to the third: Le mie pene eran piccole, quando confuicratio vn si gran guadagno.

Non credete perd, che to non fentijjl i tormenti; li fentiuo viuamete, ma haueuo interiormete forza tale per foffrirli, che Jlupiuo di me Jleffo, b pin tojlo della gratia, e crcdeuo qnejlo ejfer quel, che Dauid diceua hauer prouato altre volte. In tribulatione dilatafti mihi: Gran bonth d' vn Dio offefo, cdtentarfi di si poco per tanti debiti, e mutar qualche tempo di piirgatorio in tormento temporale. I had formerly fou7id to my taste the paraphrase of St.

Bernard upon those words of the Apostle, non sunt condignae passiones, etc. On this occasion I found it of much consolation: My pains tvere small, when I considered so great a gain. Momentaneum et leve tribulationis nostrae.

Do not believe, however, that I did not feel the torments: I felt them keenly, but within I had such strength to suffer them, that I xvas astonished at myself, — or, rather, at the grace, — and I supposed this to be what David said that he had formerly proved. In tribulatione dilatasti mihi.

Great goodness of an off elided God, — to be content with so little, for so many debts, and to change some season of purgatory into temporal torment! Quam bonus Israel Deus, his qui recto, — nay, et his qui iniquo sunt corde. I difcorfi ordinarij erano di dirmi: Non percib lafcib di feguitare, temendo, die fi burlaffero di lui: Now the Demon — in order to trouble our joy, to weaken hope, and to put, as the Scripture says, water in our zvine, vinum tuum mixtum est aqua — stirs up in us doubts of all these truths; but the goodness of God, who deducit ad inferos, et reducit, did not abandon me; because, by giving to myself those thoughts tvhich I should have given on a similar occasion to a third person, I found myself in great peace and tran- quillity.

I once made a journey of many miles, saying nothing else but the Credo, — with so much satisfaction that the journey, otherivise fatiguing, and the quite heavy burden, appeared to me nothing. As for that which con- cerns occupation, either you speak of the inward kind, and it was that ivhich I have mentioned; or of the outzuard, and this those gave mc zvho were tormenting me.

I spent a great part of the days in the assemblies and on the stages, where I was an object of the jests and ridicule not only of the men. Their usual conversation was to tell me: Fourthly, you wished to know whether among those Barbarians there was not some one who had a little pity for me, or at least was not as cruel as the others. I do not doubt it at all; but no one dared to shozv it, fearing to be despised; [51 i. One evening, — while they zvere burn- ing the ring-finger of my right hand for the last time, — instead of singing, as they commanded me, I intoned the Miserere with so awful a voice that I made them afraid; and all listened to me with attention.

U effere Jfrettamente legato i vn gran tormento, che non haueuo mai conceputo, confidcrando la pajjione di Nojlro Signore, quando V ero non potetio in niun modo dormire, con tutto cib mi ci tcneuano tutta la notte. Quejlo non fcruiua ad altro, che it farnii legar pik flrettamente, eh bene, diceuano poi, bur- landofi di me, nonfiai hora meglio? Sertiendofi fpeffiffimo, fecondo il lor coflume, di crudeli ironic.

I thought then that I would die, — so cruel was the pain; I therefore exhorted our captive Htirons to suffer cheerfully , especially if it should befall them to do so for the Faith, — assuring them that the hope of Paradise deterred me from fearing death.

Xxx gratis escorte dieppe -

Be that as it may, she departed from Tours with her dear companion, on the twentieth day of February in the year sixteen hundred and thirty-nine. But, finally, it was as he said, because such was the will of God and of the Virgin Mother, xxx gratis escorte dieppe, — to tvhom I acknoxviedge my life, and that which I esteem still more, — a great strength in my troubles; may it please the Majesty of God that this redound to his greater glory and to my good. It was the igth of fune, which I reckoned as the last of my life; and I entreated a Captain that they would commute, if it was possible, the death by fire into grosse mamie escort st maxime other, but another man exhorted him to remain firm in the resolution xxx gratis escorte dieppe taken. Here follows what he writes to our Father General, and to some friends in Europe.

I'e- ftois rauie d'eftonnement, dit la Mere de 1' Incarnation, de voir en vne fille de quatorze ans, non feulement la maturite de celles qui en ont plus de vingt- cinq, mais encore la vertu d'vne Religieufe defia bien auancee. Rien de puerile ne paroiffoit en fa ieu- neffe, elle gardoit fes Regies dans vne fi grande ] RELATION OF 85 belong to God, and to follow the maxims of the Gos- pel, [] made her resolve, in the presence of the blessed Virgin, to drink the bitterness of her son's cup, and to persevere constantly in his house, even though all these torments should accompany her until death.

It is the custom to dress the girls, on this last day of their secular life, in a manner befitting the rank that they would have held in the world. Our Novice appeared, to the view of Madame her mother, so composed, so modest, that, when the latter approached her to give her the last Farewell, she seized and embraced her, and held her so long clasped to her bosom that Monsieur de la Troche, seeing her speechless and well- nigh in a swoon, snatched her from her mother's arms to conduct her to the door of the Monastery whence she had come.

This separation drew some tears from the daughter's eyes, and left the mother in a deep melancholy. As soon as the former entered the Monastery, her parade dress was removed, and the one that she had so ardently desired was given her, with the customary ceremonies. She was also made to bear the name of saint Bernard ; we shall relate hereafter how [] she took that of saint Joseph. You would have said that she was beginning where many leave off.

Nothing puerile showed itself in her youth: Les deux ans de fon Nouitiat fainctemet efcoulez, Meffieurs fes parens luy vindrent liurer la derniere bataille: Monlieur fon pere luy reprefente, qu'il n'y a encore rien de fait, qu'elle eft encore dans la plaine poffeffion de fa liberty, qu'il ne faut que trois paroles pour l'enchainer, en forte qu'il n'y aura plus de remede a fon repentir. Leur deflein n' eftoit pas de refifter a Dieu: La liaifon des cceurs ne fe rompt bien fouuent qu'a- - 53] RELA TION OF ibsi 87 followed her Rules with so great exactness that one would have said she was born for these observances ; and the high sacrifice of the understanding and will, which causes so many persons great exertions, seemed to come to her by nature.

In a word, her disposi- tion, which was ever invariably cheerful, made her very lovable and very welcome to all the Communi- ty ; and she watched so carefully over herself that it was not necessary to admonish her twice in regard to the same thing; indeed, she even regarded herself as admonished and reprimanded for the faults that she saw corrected in her companions.

It suffices to render this very authentic and truthful testimony, that, from her entrance upon her Novitiate until her death, she always endeavored to respond faithfully to the grace of her calling. Madame her mother brought to bear the rest of her rhetoric, and showed all her affection, all her love, and all her tenderness, — assur- ing her daughter that she would receive her with open arms, if the life of a Religious order that was far from easy was in the slightest degree distasteful to her; she protested that she could not, without violence, be separated from her.

Monsieur her father represented to her that no decisive step had yet been taken, that she was still in full possession of her liberty ; but that it needed only three words to bind her so that there would be no further remedy for her repentance. Their design was not to resist God, but to oppose a calling founded on shifting sand. Noftre Nouice ne pouuoit quitter Dieu, ny fes parens: II luy fit voir dans fon fommeil, vne efchelle femblable a celle de Iacob: Elle en voypit plufieurs qui tomboient a la renuerfe des le premier pas, ou des le premier degre de 1'efclielle: He who utters the word " mother " [] utters the name of one who loves; and he who speaks of a well-born child, speaks of a heart full of love and respect.

Our Novice could forsake neither God nor her parents. She would have wished either that her mother might become a Nun with her, or that her parents might convert their house into a Monastery of her Order; for to speak of separation was to speak of death. She would rather have died a thousand times than quit the plow-handle and turn back ; and poor nature suffered, in her, strange convulsions and anguish at the thought that she was about to deprive herself, for the rest of her days, of her good mother's delightful conversation.

He who holds all nature suspended in his hand, who knows the number of the stars, who gives force to the winds, and sets bounds to the floods and storms of the sea, cured her of this temptation in a moment. He caused her to see in her sleep a ladder like that of Jacob ; with one end it touched the heavens, and with the other it rested on the earth. Many people were climbing this ladder, aided by their good Angels, who gently wiped away the sweat [] which the toil and exertion called forth from their foreheads and their entire faces.

Some of them she saw who fell backward at the first step, or at the first round of the ladder; others tumbled headlong from the middle ; and a small number, surmounting the diffi- culties of a road so straight and so steep, arrived at last at the top, and gained the victory. Si toft que noftre ieune Profeffe fut enrollee en la milice de Iefus-Chrift, on luy mit les armes en la main pour combattre fes ennemis, fcauoir eft l'igno- rance des petites filles qu'on luy donna a.

Cet exercice qui eft bas dans les ames mercenaires, l'efle- uoit a la dignite des Anges gardiens. It needed no questioning of GEdipus for the explanation of this enigma ; the Spirit of God was its interpreter. He cracked the stone, and made her taste its kernel.

That love of the child of Adam which held her fettered by the eyes and heart of flesh, was changed in an instant to a love which does not destroy nature, but sanctifies it, — a love stronger, but freer ; a love which regards not time, but eter- nity.

Her fidelity in resisting that stifling love ; her greatness of soul in never revealing it to her parents, for fear that they would take advantage of it to oppose her calling ; her resolve to suffer, for the rest [] of her days, the tyranny of that love, rather than take a backward step and desert her post, — won for her that holy and unfettered love which, after freeing her from her bondage, gave her the means to offer to God, in deep peace, a veritable sacrifice, — or, rather, an entire holocaust of herself; uniting herself closely to him in separating herself from all his creatures, by means of the vows of her profes- sion, which she took at the age of sixteen.

And never after that time did the love of her parents cause her trouble ; and the fear of severing her connection with them was so banished from her heart that she after- ward, without any difficulty, put more than a thousand leagues' distance between herself and them.

As soon as our young Professed nun was enrolled in the army of Jesus Christ, weapons were put into her hands to combat his enemies, — namely, the ignorance of the little girls given her to teach, and the evil tendencies of their nature.

This pursuit — a low one, to mercenary souls — raised her to the dignity of the guardian Angels. De la vient qu'affez fouuent elle demandoit a fa Superieure difpenfe de voir les perfonnes dont elle croyoit que la conuerfation fe pafferoit fans fruid:. LA Mere de S.

If she instructed them in civility, if she taught them to read or write, or if she made them learn some work, she always made her instruc- tion bear on their salvation, gently inculcating in them how they were to sanctify these occupations, and derive therefrom help for their salvation. In a word, her sole object, during almost all her life, was to cause God to be known and loved by those with whom she had intercourse. Conversation that did not have to do with piety she could not endure ; and if any one by some digression of too great freedom wished to draw her into talk which savored of the world, she would lead him back again with a holy dexterity ; or if he were persistent, she would retire from the Grating or else would take the liberty to speak to him according to her feelings, without respect to human considerations, saying that one must not be less free and less bold in upholding the good than some [] were in destroy- ing it.

Hence it was that she not infrequently asked her Superior to excuse her from seeing those whose conversation she believed would be fruitless. Joseph possessed an intelligence that was quick, clear, and highly enlightened. Eftant done fur le point de prendre cet eflor, Noftre Seigneur luy fit voir ce que ie vay raconter. Ces beautez mifes en leur iour, brilloient auec vn merueilleux 6clat: Elle y vit entrer vn Religieux de fa con- noiflance, qui fut incontinent enchant6 auffi bien que les autres.

Ce qui l'efpouuenta plus fortement dans ce danger, fut, que ne pouuant retourner en arriere, elle fe voyoit comme dans la contrainte de fe ietter dans ce precipice. Mais au moment qu'elle fe croy- oit perdue, il parut vne troupe ou vne compagnie de ieunes gens, faits iuflement comme les Sauuages de la nouuelle France, qu'elle n'auoit pas encore veus: L'vn d'eux portoit vn guidon efcrit de certains mots d'vne langue eftragere.

Being, then, on the point of taking this flight, Our Lord made her see what I am about to relate. She found herself, in the quiet of night, at the entrance to a large square surrounded on all sides by shops. These beautiful things, advantageously displayed, shone with a marvelous brilliancy; so that all those who entered this square were immediately enamored of them.

She saw enter there a Friar of her acquaint- ance, who was forthwith enchanted, as well as the others. What most frightened her in this danger was, that, not being able to retreat, she saw herself apparently forced to throw herself into this abyss. But, just as she thought herself lost, there appeared a troop or company of young people having exactly the appearance of the Savages of new France, whom she had not then seen.

One of them bore a standard inscribed with certain words in a strange tongue. She, greatly astonished, heard a voice which came from these olive-colored people, and which said to her: En fuite de ce deffein, elle fe tranfporta a Tours pour en obtenir quelques-vnes de Monfeign. In a word, they put her in a place of safety.

It is true, she did not at once know this, and she did not take her Benefactors for Savages ; but it must also be owned that the fondness she had always had for the salvation of souls, increased in ardor every day in her heart after this vision ; and that the reading of the Relations, which were sent every year from Canada, gave her most fervent desires to undertake things which she held as chimer- ical, not thinking the day was ever destined to come when she could realize them.

She spoke about them often to Mother Marie de 1' Incarnation, who burned with the same fire, which they both regarded as folly, — not seeing with what fuel it could be fed, and unable to conceive that persons of their sex and condition were destined ever to be sent even unto the ends of the world.

In pursuance of this plan, she repaired to Tours, to obtain some from Monsei- gneur the Archbishop and from Mother Frangoise de St. Bernard, Superior of their Convent. Bernard, Superieure de leur Monaftere. Toute la Maifon des Vrfulines eftoit en feu, il n'y en auoit pas vne qui ne fouhaitat cette feconde place, exceptee noftre ieune Profeffe. Vous euffiez dit que le Demon [] luy auoit donne vn coup de maff ue fur la tefte: C'eft pourquoy s'eftant ouuerte a fa chere compagne la Mere de l'lncarna- - 53] RELA TION OF i6ji 99 sieur the Archbishop approved this enterprise, con- trary to the expectation of those who knew how much he was naturally opposed to things so new and unprecedented.

He ordered the Superior to give to Madame de la Pelterie Mother Marie de l'lncarnation, whom she asked for expressly, and to choose, by the advice of some persons whom he named, a companion for her. The whole House of the Ursulines was on fire, there being no one, except our young Professed Nun, who did not wish for this second place. You would have said that the Evil One [] had given her a blow on the head with a cudgel.

She was colder than ice ; she seemed stunned and abashed ; and that great love that she felt for a good whose realization had appeared to her so advan- tageous, but impossible, was changed into a great aversion when she saw herself empowered to claim it.

And, although she honored Madame de la Pelte- rie as a saint, yet she regarded her, as well as the one who had been accorded her, as lost. It is a strange thing that the affairs of God are always attended with abhorrence and crosses. All her light was changed to darkness, her affections to estrange- ment, and her love to hate. It is true, this noise and din were only in the kitchen or in the courtyard among the servants, — I mean, in the lower story of the passions; for she always had, in the inmost depths of her heart, and in her soul's highest cham- bers, a secret esteem for a calling so exalted.

Hence it was that, upon unbosoming herself to her dear companion, Mother de l'lncarnation, these phantoms vanished, the curtain was withdrawn, and the day appeared to her, more beautiful than ever.

La-deffus' on fe met en deuoir d'en choifir vne autre. On expofe le faindt Sacrement, on fait les Prieres de quarante heures, afin que Dieu prefi- daft a cette 61edtion. Sa Prieure demeura fans parole: Those who knew her talents, and who had a love for this great work, believed that matters must not rest there ; they urged Mother de 1' Incarnation to ask for her as companion. The Superior lent her a deaf ear. Thereupon the task of choosing another was undertaken: Strangely enough, in so great a num- ber, those with whom this choice rested could reach no conclusion except in favor of our Candidate ; in the case of all the others, there was something or other that proved an objection.

Accordingly, she went again to find the Mother Prioress, prostrated herself, and conjured her to be favorable to her in this emergency, unless she knew her to be unaccept- able to God.

Her Prioress remained speechless; love made her fear to lose a girl whom she had tenderly nurtured, [] who had given her so much satisfaction, and who gave great promise for her house. These reiterated demands, and the fear of resisting God and not yielding him what he desired, made her pass the whole night without sleeping ; and in this silence Our Lord took possession of her with such power, and gave her so much knowledge con- cerning the calling of her dear daughter, that she submitted, with the provision, however, that her parents should give their consent.

Le courrier trouua Meffieurs fes parens a Angers. II leur prefenta les lettres de leur chere fille. Mon- fieur de la Troche les [] lifant demeura tout paine" d'6tonnement. Madame de la Troche ; ayant vn peu repris fes efpris, commande qu'on mette les cheuaux au caroffe pour aller promptemet empefcher ce voyage. Aum-toft dit, auffi-toft fait. Comme elle auoit defia vn pied dans le caroffe, parut vn Pere Carme, qui ayant appris le fujet d'vn voyage fi foudain, luy dit, Madame ie vous arrefte, permettez que ie vous die vn mot en voflre maifon.

Elle obeit, quoy qu'auec peine, ils fen vont tous deux enfemble trouuer Monfieur de la Troche. Meanwhile the prayers were continued in the house, and our young Amazon took as advo- cate in her cause the great saint Joseph, asking of him not admission to Canadas, but that he would incline her parents' hearts to follow the promptings of the spirit of God; and she made a vow to him that, if his goodness should open that door to her, she would take and bear his name, and proceed under his auspices, in that remote quarter of the world.

Monsieur de la Troche, [] on reading them, was completely overcome with astonishment. Madame her mother, opening the sluice-gates of her tears and giving free vent to her grief, filled her whole house with alarm: Madame de la Troche, regaining her spirits somewhat, ordered the horses put to the coach, in order to go at once and prevent this voyage.

No sooner said than done. When she had one foot already in the coach, there appeared a certain Carmelite Father, who, upon learning the cause of so sudden a journey, said to her, ' Madame, I detain you; permit me to say a word to you in your house.

Ne voila pas des parens, dignes d'auoir efle honorez d'vne fi fainte fille? Madame de la Troche ayant fait fon facrifice, ne demandoit plus que la fatisfadtion d'aller embracer encor vne f ois fa chere fille ; de luy pouuoir aller donner le dernier adieu: Ce bon Religieux luy dit, auec vne fainte franchife, non Madame vous n'irez pas: Faites l'holocaufte tout entier ; il fufnt que vous luy ecriuiez, felon les fentimens que Dieu vous donne.

Son confeil fut fuiuy. Iofeph, fuiuant le vceu qu'elle en auoit fait, elle triomphe de ioye, fe remettant en memoire la fuite de fa vocation: Were they not parents worthy of being honored by so holy a daughter? What will be said before God by the Communities from which such eminent subjects are not demanded, when they see a house give the dear- est that it has, and parents deprive themselves of the object of their love and tenderness?

This good Religious, with a holy frankness, said to her: Offer the holo- caust in all its entirety. It is sufficient for you to write to her according to the feelings that God gives you. Monsieur and Madame de la Troche wrote two letters, of such [] piety and Christian spirit that they drew tears from all who read them. This news having arrived, the name of Marie St. Joseph was given to Mother Marie de saint Bernard, in accordance with the vow which she had made in the matter.

Monfieur l'Archeuefque ayant appris que le choix des deux Meres eftoit fait, les fit venir en fon Palais, ce fainct. Et le Cantique de la faindte Vierge. In a word, she made ready for that long voyage of a thousand leagues in a straight line, and of more than three thousand in the detours and tacks that had to be made. Monsieur the Archbishop, learning that the choice of the two Mothers was made, summoned them to his Palace, where this holy old man gave them his blessing.

He urged them to embrace with courage the Cross of the son of God, — using the same words that our Lord uttered to his Apostles upon sending them on their Missions, and making them sing the Psalm, In exitu Israel de Aigypto, etc.

He dismissed them, with astonishment at seeing the strength and constancy of those three Amazons, for Madame their foundress was of the party. The greater number envied her happy lot, although some trembled at the thought of the dangers she might encounter by land and sea. Be that as it may, she departed from Tours with her dear companion, on the twentieth day of February in the year sixteen hundred and thirty-nine.

On ne remarquoit aucune ieuneffe dans cette grande ieuneffe, ce n'eftoit que [] maturite. She was welcome in times of dan- ger; she could dispel fear by some little saying, and induce the company to join in prayer, which she herself, with much cheerfulness, was the first to begin.

In her extreme youth, no youth was noticed, but only [] maturity. Her self-reliance espe- cially showed itself one day, at the prospect of death that presented itself, — not armed with a scythe, but clothed in frightful ice, against which their vessel would have been dashed to pieces, had not God preserved them by a kind of miracle.

Her firmness brought color to their pale faces and strengthened the hearts that trembled with fear. At last, after weathering the Ocean storms, — after withstanding the violence of winds and waves, after passing through a thousand dangers, and bearing with con- stancy the fatigues of the sea, — she was by the will of God enabled, in the same year in which she started, to enter the land so ardently longed for, the land of conflicts and of victories, to pass thence to the glorious sojourn of an everlasting triumph.

Let us say now a few words about her virtues, and the favors which her Bridegroom showed her in this land of benediction.

Mother Marie de saint Joseph had from her child- hood a great tenderness for the incarnate Word. Ie ne luy parlois iamais du Fils de Dieu dans le peu de fejour que ie fis aupres de Meffieurs fes parens, adjoufte le Pere, que ie ne viHe f es petites ioues toutes tremp6es de fes larmes: Quia virtus Domini erat cum ilia. Comme il vint a fe retirer, elle le voulut fuiure: One morning, some six years before her death, as she was at prayer, her soul appeared to her under the form of a charming castle ; and at the same time this Bridegroom, the Son of the Almighty, present- ing himself at the door, made himself apparent to her spirit by a purely intellectual communication, wherein the Evil One had no part, since it was inde- pendent of all the senses.

At length, holding her in his arms and taking full possession of her soul, he said to her: Elle en parloit quelquefois fi haute- ment, qu'on voyoit bien d'ou procedoient fes connoif- fances. Noftre Seigneur luy tenoit fouuent vn langage fort interieur. Chantant vn iour le Credo a la faindte Meffe, elle entra dans vne complaifance amoureufe en prononcant ces paroles, Per quern omnia facia silt, fe refiouyffant en fon cceur, de ce que toutes chofes auoient efte faites par fon Efpoux.

Elle penfa s'aneantir entendant ces paroles, qui ne fignifioient autre chofe, qu'vne faindte transformation en celuy, dans lequel elle viuoit plus qu'en elle-mefme. Elle eftoit dans de continuelles recon- noiffances d'eftre venue au monde fous la loy de grace, pour auoir le moyen de poffeder pleinement Iefus-Chrift.

From that time, her heart was no longer her own ; and one could not speak of Jesus Christ in her presence without causing her soul to soften and melt with love.

She spoke of him some- times in such exalted language that it was clearly seen whence came her knowledge. Our Lord often talked with her, in language heard only by the inner ear. Singing the Credo one day at holy Mass, she lapsed into a state of amorous delight on uttering these words, Per quern omnia facta sunt, rejoicing in her heart that all things had been made by her Bridegroom.

And, when that joy and that delight made her almost swoon away, he said to her: En effet, les yeux bien puri- fiez qui voyent les chofes dans la verite, ne font pas beaucoup touchez du menfonge. Nous le verrons dans ce qui fuit. Ces paroles veritablement fubftantielles, eurent leur effet: She felt great pity for souls that had no knowledge of this great treasure, and was displeased with those that had knowledge of it, but did not possess it. The sight of the charms of her Well -beloved made her see so plainly the baseness and ugliness of created beings — in a word, the nothingness of every- thing — that, long before her death, she was regarded by some as incapable of vainglory, or of any other love than that which is directed toward God.

In- deed, the vision that has been made clear, and sees things as they are, is not greatly touched by what is false. It occurs to me that some of her sisters, upon reading this little summary of her life, may well desire the same delights and the same intimacy with their Savior. It must be confessed [] that that sugar is sweet and that ambrosia is full of delight ; but they will permit me to say to them that those great and transient consolations are ordinarily com- municated only to the souls that Jesus Christ causes to suffer with him.

It is merely a nutriment and support which he gives them to enable them to bear the burden of his sufferings, as we shall see in what follows. As Our Lord often spoke to her, he told her, four years and a half before her death, that she would thenceforth live only by faith and crosses.

These words, weighty indeed, had their effect. Thence- forward she cared only for sufferings, and her Bride- groom gave her an abundance of them. She was constantly subjected to a state of spiritual suffering so hidden, so piercing, and so acute, that few persons were able to understand them. Eftant certain iour dans les langueurs, elle dit ces paroles a fa com- pagne: Elle appaifoit l'amour de la ioye par l'a- mour des fouffrances. Paul, dans fes fouffrances.

L'Efpoufe des Cantiques va chercher fon Efpoux, quand il eft abfent. L'ame [] que Dieu occupe en l'oraifon, demeure en repos: Often that Lover of suffering souls burdened her with the weight [] of his Justice, of his Holiness, and of his other attri- butes, with loads of such heaviness that her life ceased to be anything but a martyrdom.

One day, when she was overcome with weakness, she said to her companion these words: Her longing to die, in order to enjoy him whom she had seen in such ravishing beauty, kindled in her soul a fire so scorching and so painful, that she could only quench it by another pain.

She appeased her love of joy by her love of suffering. This language is not strange to those who love, and who know that, in order to be in a high degree like Jesus Christ in his glory, one must, as St. Paul says, be conformed to him in his sufferings. The Bride of the Canticles goes to seek her Bride- groom when he is absent.

The soul [] that God engages in prayer remains at rest; but, if he hide himself, it arouses its spirit and sends forth its affections to seek and to find its well-beloved. Our Canadian followed this maxim in her Crosses. When her Bridegroom gave her any, she bore them with a peace, and submission to his orders and guidance, that were altogether charming: Ses refiflances ne procedoient pas, d'vn petit compliment, forme" du bout des levres: Knowing, as she did, the malice and cunning of the daughter of Adam — I mean, of corrupt nature — she had a marvelous adroitness not only in killing it, but also in preventing her sisters' Charity from affording her any relief.

It gave her offense to tell her that her infirmities exempted her from observ- ing the rules of the Community ; and a formal con- test ensued when she was urged to take some rest in her weakness, unless the latter were [] extreme. Her resistance did not consist in a little compliment formed merely by her lips; but was based on a perception of her lowliness, and a belief that she was a burden to her Community.

In other matters she yielded easily and submitted readily to those who governed her, when they did not listen to her argu- ments — a thing which happened very seldom; for her eloquence was great when she pleaded the cause of Jesus Christ's sufferings against the effeminacy of the old Adam.

IT is very difficult to love Jesus without loving Mary, or to honor Mary without respecting saint Joseph. I can say with truth that that holy family gave the first, the noblest, and the most constant occupation to Mother Marie de saint Joseph, during all the years of her earthly pilgrimage.

Sa vocation en vn ordre qui trauaille au falut des ames: She was born with a spirit of devotion toward the blessed Virgin ; that was the first milk which she imbibed. Her good [ 1 68] mother dedicated and consecrated her from her cradle to that Queen of the Angels, and made her pass her first infancy in that piety. We have said that the name Marie was given her with this intent, that it was as sugar to her mouth, whenever she pronounced it, and that her ears and her heart always felt a new pleasure when she was called by the beautiful name Marie.

This joy arose from the love that she bore that Queen of the Angels, and it may be said this love was a jealous love ; for she could not bear that others should not have frequent recourse to, and great con- fidence in, her whose goodness she so often experi- enced. To her she attributed her pious education in her early youth, her desires to belong to God and draw others to him, her calling in an order laboring for the salvation of souls, the love of her dear son, her deliverance from her difficulties and tempta- tions, — in a word, all the graces and favors that she received from the goodness of her dear child.

She often said that, from her birth up to the age of twenty years, every day, every week, and every month of her [] life had been consecrated to her in a very special manner. By the love and confi- dence which she had in the blessed Virgin, she was delivered from that low and selfish love that she bore her parents. The hallowed and unfettered Love that she had for them afterward was only an imitation of the love which that Princess cherished for her sov- ereign lord.

Souuent elle recitoit auec l'Ange, mille fois le premier falut, qu'il luy a fait. Elle ne fentoit pas cette douceur enuers faindt Iofeph: If she had some little time to herself, it was immediately consecrated to the blessed Virgin; and, during the first years that she was in the house of God, she was always searching for new devices by which to honor her — now by Psalms, now by Hymns, and again by praises and by vows that never ended.

She often recited a thou- sand times, the first Angelical salutation. If at any time she lapsed into some imperfection, she went, full of love, to caress her good Mother, conjuring her to cover up that fault with the beauty of her virtues, in order that her son's eyes might not be wounded by it, and that [] the wrong she had done him by her offense might be repaired by her very lovable fidelity ; and thereupon, pouring out her heart at her feet, she promised her to be more faithful another time, and to perform such and such mortifications, or to recite such and such devotions in her honor.

She entered into her joys and into her sorrows; she served her on her journeys; in a word, she was all confidence and love for her much honored Lady and Mistress. She did not feel that tenderness toward saint Joseph, and would have been almost willing to bring suit in the matter against the blessed Virgin, reproach- ing her for not giving her any access to her dear Spouse.

She urged and conjured her to take pity on her and grant her that favor, — to present her to that lovable Spouse.

Mais cela ne la confoloit point, pour ce qu'elle ne reffentoit pas, la protection de ce grand Patriarche, comme elle experimentoit celle de fa chere Efpoufe. Au temps de fes plus grandes angoiffes, la Supe- rieure des Vrfulines de Loudun s'en allant au tom- beau du B. Dieu fcait de quelle douleur fut faifie fa pauure ame! Si Dieu prend fes delices auec les hommes, les Saindts n'en font pas moins. Ce grand Patriarche prenoit plaifir de voir cette ame innocente courre apres ce qu'elle [] poffedoit defia d'vne facon plus noble, que celle que fon ardeur pretendoit.

En fin il la voulut confoler. Her Prioress told her, with a smile, that her tears and anguish were a mark [] of that devotion. But this did not comfort her, because she did not feel the protection of that great Patriarch as she did that of his dear Spouse.

At the time of her greatest anguish, the Superior of the Ursulines of Loudun, on her way to the grave of the Blessed Monsieur de Sales, passed through Tours and lodged at the Monastery of our Canadian. All the Nuns, and she in her turn, kissed the sacred balm which saint Joseph used in curing that good Mother and bringing her out of her agony.

There was not one of them that did not experience an odor and an influence from this balm, which was not of earthly origin, — except our Canadian, who was denied that grace ; the odor of this balm neither touched her nostrils, nor produced any emotion in her heart. God knows with what grief her poor soul was seized. Then indeed it was that she be- lieved that he whose friendship she sought so piously had repulsed her. If God takes his delight in men, the Saints do so no less.

This great Patriarch took pleasure in seeing that innocent soul run after what she [] already possessed in a nobler manner than her ardor laid claim to. At length, it was his will to comfort her. That good Mother of Loudun, returning from her journey and passing again through Tours, entered the same Monastery, and gave a second opportunity to kiss the holy balm, which she always carried with her.

Mother Marie de St. La Mere Marie de S. Son attente ne fut pas vaine; elle n'eut pas fi toft touche" cette ondtion, que non feulement elle en fentit l'odeur, mais elle en fut penetree iufques au fonds de Tame, auec l'effedt de la grace qu'elle auoit tant demanded.

Le tranfport d' efprit qu'elle eut pour lors, fut fi fenfible, que la Mere de Loudun s'en apperceuant, luy dit en fouriant, Voicy vn cceur puiflamment preffe" de Dieu. Her expectation was not in vain: The spiritual transports which she then experienced were so keenly felt that the Mother of Loudun, perceiv- ing it, said to her with a smile, " Here is a heart powerfully acted upon by God. Wc traveled tvithout shoes; fasting sometimes till three and four 0' clock in the afternoon, and often whole days; exposed to the rain, and soaked in the ivater of the torrents and rivers which zve had to cross.

At evening, my office was to gather the wood, carry the zvater, atid do the cooking, when there was any; and if I came short in anything, or did not under- stand well, the blows were not lacking, — and much less did these fail, ivhen we happened to meet people who were going either fishing or hunting; besides, I was hardly able to rest at night, for being bound to a tree and exposed to the severity of the air, zvhicJi was still quite cold.

We finally reached their lake, on which — when they had made other canoes, at which it was necessary for me to assist them — -we sailed five or six days, after ivhich we landed, and there we made three days journey on foot. Ci fecero cantare finche i foldati fe n' andaffero, e ci lafciarono trh le mani de giouani del luogo. At about ttvo hundred paces from their cabins, they stripped me naked, and made me go first; on either side, the young men of the country stood in line, every one with his stick in hand, but the first of them had, instead of the stick, a knife.

Then, as I began to proceed, this one suddenly stopped me; and, having taken my left hand, with the knife xvhicit he held, he made in it an incision be- tween the little finger and the ring-finger, zvith so much force and violence that I believed he would split my zuhole hand; and the others began to load me tvith blows as far as the stage prepared for our torment.

Then they made tiie mount upon some great pieces of bark, about nine palms above the ground, — in order that we might be seen and viocked by the people. I was Jiow bruised all over, and covered zvith blood, zvhich was floiving from all parts of my body, — and "xposed to a very cold xvind, zvhich made it suddenly congeal over the skin; but I greatly consoled viyself to see that God granted me the favor of suffering m this world some little pain in place of that zvhich I was under obligation, because of my sins, to pay in the other with torments incomparably greater.

Meanzvhile, the warriors arrived, and zvere magnificently received by the people of this village; and, zvhen they zvere refreshed with. Some time after, a Huron slave brought us a dish of turkish [Indian] corn; and a Captain, seeing me tremble zvith cold, at my urgency finally tossed back to me the half of an old summer garment, all torn, [36 i. They made us sing until the warriors went 'f? Bifo- gnaua obedire fino h fanciulli in cofe ancora poco ragioneuoli, e fpejfo contrarie.

Mi comandauano, che io pigliajji il fuoco con le dita per metterlo nelle loro pippe, nelle quali pigliano il tabacco, e poi Io faceunno h pojla cadere quattro, e cinque lolte feguitamente per farmi bruciar le mani con raccog- lierlo di nuouo da terra. Quedo Ji faceua d' or dinar io la nottc. They kept us in this place five or six days for their pastime, exposed to the discretion or indiscretion of everybody.

It was necessary to obey the very children, and that in things little reasonable, and ofteti contrary. They commanded nie to take the fire in my fingers, and put it into their pipes, in which they took tobacco; and then they purposely made it fall four or five times in succession, in order to make me burn my hands by pickifig it up again from the ground.

This was usually done at night. Toward evening, the Cap- tains shouted throjigh the cabins with frightful voices: Then some pricked me with sharp sticks, others with firebrands; these burned me with red-hot stones, those with hot ashes arid lighted coals.

They made me walk around the fire, where they had fixed in the earth sharp sticks between the burning ashes; some tore out my hair, others my beard; and every night, after having made me sing, and tormented me as above, they would burn one of my nails [37 i. Partimmo di qu a In six times, they burned nearly six of my fingers, — and more than 18 times they applied the fire and iron to my hands alone; and meamvhile it was necessary to sing.

Thus they treated us till one or tzvo hours after midnight, and then they left me on the bare ground, usually tied to the spot, and exposed to the rain, zvithout other bed or cover than a small skin, which covered not the half of my body, — even at times without anything, because they had already torn up that piece of garment ; although, out of pity, they made of it for me etiough to cover that which decency does not permit to be uncovered, even among themselves, but retained the rest.

I was treated in this way, and ivorse, for a ivhole month; but, at this first place, no longer than eight days. I would never have believed that a man could endure so hard a life.

One night, tvhile they zvcre tor? He was heard tvith great attention, and then they uttered a loud shout in token of Joy, — resolving to treat me still zvorse, — and, on the following morning, condemned me to be burned alive, and eaten. They then began to guard me more strictly, not leaving me alone even [38 i. We started thence on the 26th of May; and, four days later we arrived at the first Village of this nation.

Penfatio di hauer perfo con la vijla I'occhio dritto, c non leuandomi di [39 i. The barbarian xvho conducted me tvas more cruel than the first, and I was wounded, zveak, ill fed, and half naked; more- over, I slept in the open air, bound to a stake or to a tree, trembling all night xvith cold, and from the pain of these bonds.

At difficult places in the road, I had need of some one to aid me because of my weakness, but all help was denied me; for this reason, I often fell, renewing my wounds; and to these they added nczv bloivs, in order to urge me to proceed, — thinking that I was feigning for the sake of staying behind, and then taking flight. On one occasion, among others, I fell into a river, and came near being drozvned; however, I got out, I know not how; and all drenched with water, together with a quite heavy bundle on my shoulders, I was obliged to complete about six miles more marching until evening.

They, meanwhile, jeered at me, and at my stupidity in having alloived myself to fall into the river; and they did not omit, at night, to burn off one of my nails. We finally arrived at the first village of that nation, where our entrance was similar to the former, and still more cruel, because — in addition to the blows with their fists, and other bloivs which they gave me on the most sensitive parts of the body — they split, for the second time, my left hand between the middle finger and the forefinger ; and I received beatings in so great number that they made me fall to the ground, half dead.

I thought that I would lose my right eye, with my sight; and, although I did not rise from the [39 i. Indeed, ivithout some other hindrance they ivould have ended by killing me, had not a Captain caused me to be dragged — as it were, by force — upon a stage of bark, similar to the first, where, soon afterivard, they cut off the thumb of my left hand and I 1 1 i i.

In tanto fopragiunfe vna gran pioggia. Qui ci tormentarono con maggior crudeltci, e sfacciataggine, che mai, fenza vn momcnto di ripofo; mi forzauano h mangiar dell' immondezze, mi abbrugiorno il rejlo deir vnghie, e qualcJie dito delle inani, mi Jlorfero quelli de' piedi, c me ne fororno vno con vn tizzone, e non sb che non mi fecero vna volta, che mi finfi tramortito per far vijia di non accorgermi di qualche cofa poco decete, che faceuano.

Quejte notti le vegliauo quafi intiere, e mi parenano longhiffune, benche fuffero le piii corte deir anno. Dio mio, che far a il purgatorio? A pena trouauo chi w' imboccaffe. Mcamvkile a great rain came up, with thunder and lightning; and they went azvay, leaving us there, naked in the zuatcr, until some one, I know not who, taking pity on us, toward evening led us to his cabin.

Here they tormented us with greater cruelty and impudence than ever, zvithout a moment of rest: Surfeited with tormenting us here, they sent us to another Village, nine or ten miles distant, where, besides the other torments, already mentioned, they suspended me by the feet, — sometimes with cords, again zvith chains, which they had taken from the Dutch; with these, at night, they left me bound — hands, feet, and neck — to several stakes, — as usual, upon the bare ground.

Six or seven nights they tormented me in such fashion, and in such places, that I cotild net describe these things, nor could they be read, without blushing. On those nights, I was awake almost all night, and they appeared to me very long, althoigh they were the shortest of the year. In this manner of living I had become so fetid and horrible that every one drove me aivay like a piece of car- rion; and they approached me for no [40 i. I zvas covered zvith I I! Ero coperto di fchifi animaletti, e non poteuo ne liberarmene, ne difendermene.

Nelle mie piaghe nafceuano i vermi, de' quali d' vn deto folo ne cafcb in vn di piii di quattro. In my wounds, worms were produced; out of one finger alone, more than four fell in one day.

Pater meus es ; mater mea, et soror mea, vermibus; factus eram mihimet ipsi gravis: I had an abscess in the right thigh, caused by blows and frequent falls, ivhich hindered vie from all repose, — especially as I had only skin and bone, and the earth, for bed. Several times the Barbarians had tried, but to no purpose, to open it, ivith sharp stones, — not zvithout great pain to me.

I was compelled to employ as Surgeon the renegade Huron who had been taken with us. The latter — on the day which, as was believed, was the eve of my death — opened it for me with four knife-thrusts, and caused blood and matter to issue from it, i? I desired and was awaiting death, but not without some horror of the fire; I zvas preparing for it, hozvever, as best I could, and was heartily commending viyself to the Mother of mercy, zuho is truly Mater ama- bilis, admirabilis, potens, et clemens, consolatrix afflictorum, — who zvas, after God, the sole refuge of a poor sinner, [41 i.

The Huron and Algonqtiin prisoners these are our Barbarians , instead of consoling me, zvere the first to torment me, in order to please the Hiroquois. Ma non lo lafciaronofenza tormenti, perche, ancorche non hauejjfe pih di dodcci, b tredeci anni gli Mrapporno cinque vnghie con i deiiti, e gli Jlrinfero, aW arriuo nel pacfe, con cordicelle Jlrcttamente i polfi con acutijjlmo dolore, e tutto in mia prefoiza per affliggermi maggiormente.

O che air hora fi fa altro giuditio di molte cofe, che coinumncmente fi flimano inolto, piaccia h Die, che io me ne ricordi, c ne approfitti. Ma vedendo vna fera la Luna, correjji il mio errcre. Non fapeuo perche tanto differiffero la mia morte, mi differo, che era per ingraffarmi, prima di mangiarnii, ma non 7ie pigliauano i meszi. In fine vn dl conuennero per finirla. But they did not leave him without torments, for, although he was no more than twelve or thirteen years old, they tore out five of his nails with their teeth; and, at his arrival in the country, they botind his wrists tightly zvitJi thongs, causing him the acut est pain, — and all in my presence, in order to afflict vie the more.

Oh, at sucJi times, what a different opinion is held of many things which are commonly much esteemed! Please God that I remember it, and profit thereby. The days being irksome to me, and having no rest at night, I counted in the mojith five days more than I should; but, seeing the Moon one evening, I corrected my error.

I knew not why they deferred my death so long; they told me that it was to fatten me before eating me, but they took no means to do so. One day, at last, they assembled in order to despatch me. It was the igth of fune, which I reckoned as the last of my life; and I entreated a Captain that they would commute, if it was possible, the death by fire into some other, but another man exhorted him to remain firm in the resolution already taken.

The first, nevertheless, assured me that I should die neither by fire nor by any other death; I did not believe him, and know not whether he himself spoke [42 i. But, finally, it was as he said, because such was the will of God and of the Virgin Mother, — to tvhom I acknoxviedge my life, and that which I esteem still more, — a great strength in my troubles; may it please the Majesty of God that this redound to his greater glory and to my good.

Hanno frefcamente ainmazzato in vna capanna vno della lor ijlejja nationc, come inutile, e die non meritaua di viuere. Ma come non hebbe la commodity d' inuiar fubito quefta lettera, arriu5 in Europa accompagnata d' al- cune altre, che metterb qui con 1' ordine ifteffo, che furono fcritte. They have recently slain in a cabin one of their otvn nation, as being jiseless, and as one who did not deserve to live.

Of cojirse, I suffer someivhat here; my ivoiinds are not yet healed over, and many do not regard me xvith a favorable eye.

One cannot live ivithout crosses, and this one is of sugar in comparison ivith the past one. The Dutch cause me to hope for my ransom, and that of the Lad who was taken zvith me; the will of God be done, in time and in Eternity.

The matter was not very difficult, and they ransomed me cheaply, on account of the small esteem in tvhich they held me, because of my want of skill for everything, and because they believed that I would never get well of my ailments.

I could not, in the time of my servitude, render to those unfortunates, for the evil which they did me, the good which I desired for them, zuhich was, to give them the knoxvlcdge of the true God.

Not knozving the language, I tried to instruct, by means of a captive interpreter, an old man zvho was dying; but pride hindered him from listening to me, — he anszvered me that a man of his age and standing should teach, and not be taught.

I asked him zvhether he knew zu hit her he zvould go after death; he answered me, ' ' To the Sunset; ' ' and here he began to relate their fables and delusions, zvhich those zur etched people, blinded by the Demon, regard as the most solid truths.

I baptized no one except a Huron, whom they conducted to the place zvhere I was, in order to burn him; those who zvcre guarding me urged me to go to see him. I went thither zuiih repugnance, — they hav- ing falsely told me that he was not one of our Barbarians, and that I wojild not have understood him.

I pass through the crozvd; they form in line for me, and allozv me to approach that man [44 i. He zvas lying on the bare ground, zvitJiout being able to rest his head in any place; I, seeing near him a stone, push it with my foot as far as his head, that he may use it for a pillow.

Then, — look- ing at me, and, either by some zvisp of beard zvhich I had left, or by some other sign, judging that I zvas a stranger, — he said to the person who had him in custody: Che dimando, dtcc egli? I baptized htm then, zvith great satisfaction to both him arid myself; but although I had done so with some artifice, — having used a little water which I had had brought for giving him to drink, — the Hiroquois nevertheless perceived it. The Captains, being, as soon as possible, ir formed of this, suddenly drove me from the cabin with anger and threats, — beginning to torment him again as before; and the following morning they finished roasting him alive.

Then, because I had baptized him, they carried all Im limbs, one by one, into the cabin where I abode, — skinning, in [45 i. The husband of the mistress of the cabin put at my feet the dead man s head, and left it there a considerable time, — reproaching me with ivhat I had done, by saying: Si Jihnano tutti Campioni, e Marti, difprezzano gli Europei, come gente vile, e codarda, e Ji penfano ejjfer nati per foggi agar il mondo, euanuerunt in cogitationibus fuis, e perb tradidit illos Dens in defideria cordis eorum, Ic fue jantifjhne oratiojii, e facrifitij, e di tiitta la Compagnia, che prega fempre per la conucrjione de gV infcdeli, potranno ottcnere, che Dio gli riguardi con occhio di pieth, e me con ejft, mafjhne ne' pericoli del mare, ne' qiiali entro, "Icurandofi, che e fano, e Jlroppiato farb fempre di V.

La terza lettera e fcritta dalV Kola di Rlie, e data alii Fummo, foggiunge, cacciati da Corfari Turchi i giorni intieri, ho fatto tiitto il viaggio con Hugcnotti, a' quali quefto nome di Papifla, e di Giefuita non lafciaua di difpiacere, non haueuo altro letto, che vna cafia nuda, doue non n. But that time has not yet arrived; their sins — and especially pride — are a great obstacle to the grace of God, Qui Immilia respicit, et alta k longe cognoscit.

They all account themselves Champions, and as Mars: Your most holy prayers a? From new Amsterdam, the T,ist of August, We were chased," he adds, "by Turkish Corsairs for whole days. I made the whole voyage with Huguenots, to whom the name of ' Papist ' or of ' Jesuit ' was, of course, displeasing; I had no other bed than a bare box, whereon I could not stretch out at full length: Eccola fedelmente tradotta dal Francefe.

La farb dunque con la mia folita feniplicita. Alia prima per qual cagione gV Hirochefi mi maltrattaffero tanto. Se amate, come dite, V anime noflre, amate dicono, anche i corpi, e non fiam piU, che vna [47 i. After 55 days of a tiresome navi- gation, I arrived in sailor's dress at the Isle of Rhe, in better health than I have thus far had in the 18 years, and over, during which I have been in the Society.

I was obliged to a. Thanks be to God. Here it is, faith- fully translated from the French. I will then give it tvith fny customary simplicity. Thus the first origin of this enmity is the Faith, which binds us, even at the peril of life, to friendship with those whom we convert, and, indirectly, to enmity zvith the Hiroquois.

Tutti qtielli, che fan viaggio in Canadh, e particolar- mente quelli, che paffano ci gli Huroni, deuojio efporfi a que fli pericoli; e fe per timore de' tormenii de gV Hirochefi, b d' altro, niuno ardiffe di farlo, quella pouera gente h poco h pocofi ritrouerebbe affatto abbandonata, efens' alcunfoc- corfo fpiritualc, onde quei, che vi muoiono fon degni d' in- uidia.

There- fore they recently prolonged eight days the tor- ments — which they commonly despatch in one day — of a christian Barbarian, who publicly boasted of being such, and was called Joseph Onahre, whom they finally put to death with most ferocious rage. Thirdly, even if the occasion of the enmity and the torments of the Barbarians zvere not the Faith, which we are seeking to plant, I 'would not fear to expose myself to the same dangers for the aid of souls.

For, if it be deemed a meritorious action to expose oneself to pesti- lence, though it were for nothing else than the aid of mere bodies, I zvould esteem myself too fortunate if God should grant me the grace of lositig my life in the help and con- version of souls. All those zvho make a voyage to Canadh, and in particular those who go to the Hurons, must expose themselves to these dangers; and if, for fear of the tor- ments of the Hiroquois, or for other cause, no one dared to make it, those poor people tvotdd gradually become altogether abandoned, and without any spiritual assistance ; therefore, those who die there ought to be envied.

But, to say the truth, I did not so much consider all this to console myself, as that God and obedience had placed me in that situation; and I prayed him to accept my sacrifice as that of the pious [48 i. La terza fit d' impedite in me, accomodando la gratia alia mia debolezza, e poca virtii, andie i primi moti di fdcgno contro i miei tormentatori, anzi li compatiuo.

Quefl' Jiuomo, dicetio tra me fleffo piaceffe a Dio, che ne lo poteffi liber are col mio fangue [49 i. Vengo alia terza delle occupation?

I will then tell you, ivHh all sincerity, three graces and singular favors zvhich I received from God at that time: The body zvas extremely dejected, — scarcely could I open my lips to say a Paternoster; — but inwardly I discoursed with the same freedom and facility that I use at present.

The second grace was so to dispose my inzvard feelings that, in proportion to the dangers and pains zvhich increased from without, my mental condition likewise changed, and I had continually less horror of death a? The third zvas, to prevent in me — by adapting the grace to my zveakness and little virtue — even the first impulses of resentment against my tormentors; on the con- trary, I pitied them.

He is unhappy, and not I. I come to the third: Le mie pene eran piccole, quando confuicratio vn si gran guadagno. Non credete perd, che to non fentijjl i tormenti; li fentiuo viuamete, ma haueuo interiormete forza tale per foffrirli, che Jlupiuo di me Jleffo, b pin tojlo della gratia, e crcdeuo qnejlo ejfer quel, che Dauid diceua hauer prouato altre volte. In tribulatione dilatafti mihi: Gran bonth d' vn Dio offefo, cdtentarfi di si poco per tanti debiti, e mutar qualche tempo di piirgatorio in tormento temporale.

I had formerly fou7id to my taste the paraphrase of St. Bernard upon those words of the Apostle, non sunt condignae passiones, etc. On this occasion I found it of much consolation: My pains tvere small, when I considered so great a gain. Momentaneum et leve tribulationis nostrae. Do not believe, however, that I did not feel the torments: I felt them keenly, but within I had such strength to suffer them, that I xvas astonished at myself, — or, rather, at the grace, — and I supposed this to be what David said that he had formerly proved.

In tribulatione dilatasti mihi. Great goodness of an off elided God, — to be content with so little, for so many debts, and to change some season of purgatory into temporal torment! Quam bonus Israel Deus, his qui recto, — nay, et his qui iniquo sunt corde. I difcorfi ordinarij erano di dirmi: Non percib lafcib di feguitare, temendo, die fi burlaffero di lui: Now the Demon — in order to trouble our joy, to weaken hope, and to put, as the Scripture says, water in our zvine, vinum tuum mixtum est aqua — stirs up in us doubts of all these truths; but the goodness of God, who deducit ad inferos, et reducit, did not abandon me; because, by giving to myself those thoughts tvhich I should have given on a similar occasion to a third person, I found myself in great peace and tran- quillity.

I once made a journey of many miles, saying nothing else but the Credo, — with so much satisfaction that the journey, otherivise fatiguing, and the quite heavy burden, appeared to me nothing. As for that which con- cerns occupation, either you speak of the inward kind, and it was that ivhich I have mentioned; or of the outzuard, and this those gave mc zvho were tormenting me.

I spent a great part of the days in the assemblies and on the stages, where I was an object of the jests and ridicule not only of the men. Their usual conversation was to tell me: Fourthly, you wished to know whether among those Barbarians there was not some one who had a little pity for me, or at least was not as cruel as the others. I do not doubt it at all; but no one dared to shozv it, fearing to be despised; [51 i.

One evening, — while they zvere burn- ing the ring-finger of my right hand for the last time, — instead of singing, as they commanded me, I intoned the Miserere with so awful a voice that I made them afraid; and all listened to me with attention. U effere Jfrettamente legato i vn gran tormento, che non haueuo mai conceputo, confidcrando la pajjione di Nojlro Signore, quando V ero non potetio in niun modo dormire, con tutto cib mi ci tcneuano tutta la notte.

Quejlo non fcruiua ad altro, che it farnii legar pik flrettamente, eh bene, diceuano poi, bur- landofi di me, nonfiai hora meglio? Sertiendofi fpeffiffimo, fecondo il lor coflume, di crudeli ironic.

I thought then that I would die, — so cruel was the pain; I therefore exhorted our captive Htirons to suffer cheerfully , especially if it should befall them to do so for the Faith, — assuring them that the hope of Paradise deterred me from fearing death.

They promised me this, and trvo did so, who were roasted by slozu fire soon afterzvard, and eaten; they were confessed by me, before dying.

To be tightly bound is a great torment, which I had never realized while consider- ing the passion of Our Lord; ivhen I was bound, I could not in any zvay sleep; zvith all this, they kept me there all night. At daybreak I zvould beg some one to unbind me; if this one perceived that he zvas seen by others, he reproved me; but if he could do so, without being blatned for cozuard- ice, — if it could be done zvithout zvitnesses,— he commonly unbound me.

Moreover, if all had been equally cruel, I would have died also from hunger, because, as I had not the use of my hands, it zvas necessary to feed me; and many, instead of putting a certain kind of porridge, which was my zvhole food, into my mouth, poured it over my breast.

Many threw upon my flesh lighted coals; but Others, out of pity, shook them from me, and poured food into my mouth, although barely [52 i. The last question zvas, ' ' zvhy did I not try in some way to appease them f " To seek to appease them was to irritate them: This served for nothing else than to have me more tightly bound.

Fin qui la lettera. E per confermare il pericolo, che v' fe d' incontrar in quei viaggi quefta forte d' affaOQni, il Padre, che fcrille quelle lettere, ritornato 1' ifteffo anno in quei paefi, in quattro viaggi, che per obedieza, e per le neceflltk della miffione iui fece in diuerfi tempi, gl' incontr5 tre volte, e ne fu ancor di nuouo piagato.

Parleremo nella terza parte d' vn' altro, che fii da effi fimilmente trattato vn' anno auanti, e quefto bafti per hora del pericolo de gl' Hirochefi. Mk v' e oltre quefto in quel lungo, e ftentato viag- gio vn continue pericolo di euidente naufragio, e di morire ftentatam.

Si nauiga, come habbiam detto, in barchette di fcorze [53 i. A It hough I banished this thought, as a temptation likely to divert me from the salutary con- sideration of death, and, even while sleeping, made more than one reflection that this was a dream, nevertheless I could not persuade myself so; arid, on awaking, I looked to see whetJicr or not it were true.

This thought, though only i? Here ends the letter. And — to confirm the danger that there is of en- countering on those journeys this kind of murder- ers — the Father who wrote these letters, having returned the same year to those countries, in four voyages which he made thither at various times, by way of obedience and for the necessities of the mis- sion, met them three times, and was again wounded by them.

We will speak, in the third part, of another who was similarly treated by them a year previously; but let this be enough, for the present, about the danger from the Hiroquois. But there is, besides this, on that long and meager journey a continual danger of obvious shipwreck, and of wretchedly dying from hunger.

One voyages, as we have said, in boats made from bark [53 i. Dico ne' fiumi, perche fe ne nauigano diuerfi. Si feguita 11 gran fiume S. Lorenzo folo per lo fpatio di S' incontrano dunque in quefli fiumi da Ve n' e d' vno, 2. Vi fi fon perfe alcune volte le barchette, per non hauer potuto chi le ftra- fcinaua refifter all' impeto della corrente. The greatest danger, how- ever, is in the rivers; I say in the rivers, because several of them are navigated. Lawrence only for the space of miles; and then, along rapids and precipices, are sought other rivers, lakes, and streamlets, until one encounters the great lake of the Hurons.

The rapids are dangerous, if the boatmen are caught in the strength of the current; and the Barbarians themselves have often made shipwreck there. They are one, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 miles in length; but, at those very long ones, not everything is always carried on the shoulders, because where the boat can be dragged, laden or empty, in the river, the Barbarians are not afraid to do so. This is performed, — not with- out some danger and much inconvenience, — often en- tering the water, quite cold, up to their waists, some- times up to the neck; they are then constrained to save themselves by swimming.

Sometimes the boats have been lost there, because the men who were dragging them could not resist the violence of the current. V fe anche il pericolo di morir di fame, perche non trouandofi hofterie per ftrada, h neceffario portar feco i viueri per 3. Hor per allegerire quanto prima la carica, i noftri Bar- bari nafcondono ne' bofchi vna parte delle loro pro- uifioni per il ritorno, ch' altro non fono, che gran turchefco puro.

Ma fe 6 altri Huroni fe n' accorgono, e le rubbano, 6 gli orfi, 5 altri [54 i. They are also assailed at every step, not only by the fear of the enemy, but by the sharp stings of innumerable mosquitoes and other most annoying little creatures. There is also the danger of dying from hunger, because, no inns being found along the way, it is necessary to carry with them provisions for 3 or 4 months, which are con- si-imed at least on the journey and during the return.

Now, in order to lighten the burden as soon as pos- sible, our Barbarians conceal in the woods, for the return, a part of their provisions, which are nothing else than turkish corn alone. But, if other Hurons find and steal it, or the bears or other [54 i. But if this navigation occur at the end of autumn, there is also the danger of finding the rivers frozen ; and then they are constrained either to die of hunger and cold, or to spend six months in the woods ; rather hunting in order to live than journey- ing to reach the desired country, — where new diffi- culties for the spread of the Gospel are not wanting, as we shall presently see.

Ma i noftri Barbari non haueuano ne gli vni, ne gli altri, ma si bene vna grand' incapacita ad impa- rar le noftre lingue, le quali, fe haueffero potuto imparare, ci haurebbero feruito non poco, perche facendo loro la metk, noi 1' altra della ftrada, ci farem- mo pivi facilmente incontrati. L' economia della loro h diuerfif s. IT is a strange thing to find oneself in a country where it is necessary to learn without a teacher, without books, and witho-iL rules, at an age already mature, a language which has no likeness to ours.

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